Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2022, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (5): 580-592.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2021.0438

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Differences in flowering and pollination characteristics of two gender phenotypes of Lilium concolor var. megalanthum between two habitats

ZHANG Di1, DU Ye-Qin1, WANG Lei1, CHEN Xin1, YAN Xing-Fu2,*(), TANG Zhan-Hui1,*()   

  1. 1School of Environment/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117, China
    2College of Biological Science and Engineering/Key Laboratory of Ecological Protection of Agro-pastoral Ecotones in the Yellow River Basin, National Ethnic Affairs Commission of the People’s Republic of China, North Minzu University, Yinchuan 750021, China
  • Received:2021-11-29 Accepted:2022-01-18 Online:2022-05-20 Published:2022-02-10
  • Contact: YAN Xing-Fu,TANG Zhan-Hui
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31960228);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31470446)


Aims The flowering phenology and floral trait of plants reflect their adaptation to the habitat, which is the result of long-term adaptation and evolution to the surrounding biological and abiotic environment. The aim of this study is to explore the differences of flowering and pollination processes of individuals with different gender phenotypes in Lilium concolor var. megalanthum populations between Gushantun wetland with low human disturbance and Jinchuan wetland with strong human disturbance.

Methods Lilium concolor var. megalanthum is a plant with two different gender phenotypes (male individuals and hermaphroditic individuals) in wild population. Lilium concolor var. megalanthum in Gushantun wetland and Jinchuan wetland were used as study materials. We compared the flowering phenology, the floral trait and the visiting behaviors of pollinators of two gender phenotypes of L. concolor var. megalanthum between these two habitats.

Important findings The results showed that the initial flowering stage, peak flowering stage and final flowering stage of its population in less disturbance site were earlier than those in disturbance site. The pollen viability of male individuals of it in less disturbance site was higher than that in disturbance site at the beginning of flowering. While the overall change trend of pollen viability of hermaphroditic individuals of it between two habitats were the same. The nectar content of male individuals of it in less disturbance site was higher at the beginning of flowering and then decreased slowly, while it increased first and began to decline after 48 h slowly in disturbance site. The nectar content of hermaphroditic individuals of it in less disturbance site began to decrease after 24 h, while it began to decrease after 48 h in disturbance site. The peak time of sugar secretion of both male and hermaphroditic individuals of it in less disturbance site was later than that in disturbance site. Stigma receptivity of it in both habitats has always maintained a high level. The main pollinators of it in two habitats were Apis cerana, Everes argiades and Argyronome laodice. The visiting frequency of Apis cerana and Everes argiades to L. concolor var. megalanthum in less disturbance site was significantly lower than that in disturbance site, but the visiting frequency of Argyronome laodice was significantly higher than that in disturbance site. Among the three pollinator species, Apis cerana had the highest flower visiting efficiency, and Everes argiades and Argyronome laodice played supplementary pollination role. The variation of flowering phenology and floral trait between the two habitats are related to the local microclimate and the number of pollinators. This difference is the result of the evolution of L. concolor var. megalanthum over a long period of time.

Key words: Lilium concolor var. megalanthum, flowering phenology, floral trait, pollinator