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Table of Content
    Volume 18 Issue 4
    10 April 1994
    Research Articles
    DCA Ordination, Quantitative Classification and Environmental Interpretation of Spruce and Fir Communities in Northwest Sichuan and South Gansu
    Jiang Hong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  297-305. 
    Abstract ( 2070 )   PDF (576KB) ( 841 )   Save
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    Based on a two-dimensional non-rank classification of two way indicative species analysis (TWlNSPAN), spruce and fir forest communities in Northwest Sichuan and South Gansu are divided into 15 associations belonging to 4 formations by using the DCA and TWlNSPAN classification methods.The dominant and indicator plant species are Smilax cyclophylla, Berberis dictyophylla (cold and moist, indicative of Moos-Abies forest and Rhododendron-Abies forest); Calamagrostis epigejos, Prunus lobulata (cold and dry, indicative of Calamagrostis Picea forest and Sinarundinar-Picea and Abies forest); Acer spp., Tsuga chinesis and Viburnum lobophyllum (warm and moist, indicative of Broad-leafed deciduous-Abies forest and Shrubland-Spruce forest); Helitotrichon boylei, Euvnymus przewlskii, Deyeuxia scacrescens and Chaemanerion angustifolium (warm and dry, indicative of Shrubland-Spruce forest and Spruce-Abies forest).
    Litter Production and Storage in the Natural and Regenerated Tropical Montane Rain Forests at Jianfengling, Hainan Island
    Wu Zhong-min, Lu Jun-pei, Du Zhi-hu
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  306-313. 
    Abstract ( 2140 )   PDF (557KB) ( 631 )   Save
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    We compared the dynamics of litter production and storage in the natural tropical montane rain forest with that of a regenerated forest after clear cutting at Jianfengling, Hainan Island, and studied the effect of typhoon on litter production.The mean annual litterfall (D. W) in the tropical montane rain forest was 9.177t·ha-1, of which the leaves, branches, and flowers and other mixed matter accounted for 49.6%, 37.0% and 13.4%,respectively. The annual litterfall in the regenerated forest was 9.323t·ha-1 with the leaves, branches, and flowers and other mixed matter occupying 56.2% , 33.0%, and 10.8%, respectively, of the total litterfall. The storage of litterfall in both of the two forest types was 5.9t·ha-1.A double falling peak and extremely high percentage of litterfall caused by typhoon are characteristic of the litter production in the tropical forest at the Jianfengling area. In some years, the typhoon-induced litterfall accounted for over 40% of the total litter production, illustrating that the effect of typhoon on tropiacl montane rain forest ecosystems is frequent, large and farreaching.
    The Application of Pinus tabulaeformis Tree Rings in Revealing the Pollution History of Chengde City
    Jiang Gao-ming
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  314-321. 
    Abstract ( 2162 )   PDF (405KB) ( 653 )   Save
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    The historical, air pollution of S and heavy metals since 1800 in the Chengde city was studied by analyzing the concentrations of S and heavy metals in the growth rings of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the Summer Villa estate. The results showed that the S concentrations in the tree rings have elevated since the beginning of the 1900s (1900—1920). The S concentrations in the tree rings of 1810--1820, 1970—1980, and 1980—1990 have increased 1—2, 3—5 , and 10 times, respectively, of those in the tree rings of 1810--1920. At Bifengmen site, S increased significantly, from 40—50 μg· g-1 to 572.9μg·g-1. Such elevation indicated that the concentration of aerial SO2 of the City has increased from the very beginning of the urbanization. It is estimated that the aerial S concentration has increased from the pre-industrial background of less than 0.1 mg·m-3 up to the present>30 mg·m-3. This is ascribed to the result of urbanization especially the appearance and aggravation of industrialization in the city of Chengde since the 1950s. Fe appeared to have increased since 1927—1945, possibly due to the opening of Damiao Iron Mine by the Japanese; Mn increased throughout the whole history, from 4.1 μg·g-1(1840—1850)to 10.4μg·g-1 (1980—1990); Pb did not increase until 1980 but sharply elevated during the last 10 years; by 560%. It appears that the concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Ni have changed little. The concentrations of S and heavy metals in the tree rings at the beginning of 1800 were the lowest, and could be regarded as the background concentrations. It is calculated that S, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn in the tree rings have increased 10, 2.4, 1.8, 1.5, 1.0 and 0.8 times, respectively, during the past 110 years or so. The svere air pollution, especially SO2, has resulted in air quality degradation, and also led to diebacks of the ancient pine trees in the Summer Villa estate.
    Changes of the Biological and Spectral Characteristics of the Pine Caterpillar-Damaged Red Pine Forest in the Spring
    Ni Jian, Wu Ji-you, Jiang Ben-he
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  322-327. 
    Abstract ( 1938 )   PDF (254KB) ( 678 )   Save
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    We studied the changes of the morphology, chlorophyll contents and spectral reflectance of a Pinus densiflora forest that was damaged by Dendrolimus spectabilis in the spring in Zhaoyuan County, Shadong province. The results showed that the pine caterpillar-grazed red pine trees had bad growth, and their needles faded or even turned dead. We divided the damaged trees into five levels based upon the density of pine caterpillars, defoliating degree, growth status and needle colors. The chlorophyll contents decreased gradually as the damage level increased. The inflexion point of the red band shifted toward the short-wavelength end of the spectrum, a phenomenon called"Blue Shift", in the red pine forest damaged by pine caterpillars. This"blue shift" can be quantified by the values of Rs,Ro, λp,λpr,λo and R550-680.
    A Study on the Biomass and Productivity of the Natural Larix gmelinii Forests
    Liu Zhi-gang, Ma Qin-yan, Pan Xiang-li
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  328-337. 
    Abstract ( 2104 )   PDF (463KB) ( 926 )   Save
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    The distribution area of Larix gmelinii in the Da Xingan Mountain,Inner Mongolia, was divided into three zones. They are Southeastern Zone, Central Zone and Northern Zone, respectively. The biomass and net primary productivity of the natural young-and middle-aged stands of Larix gmelinii in the three zones were studied, based on the analysis of biomass from 237 sample trees, allometric dimension analysis of 814 trees, and field investigations conducted in 355 plots.An allometric model, lnW=lna+blnD + cD or lnW=lna + blnD2H +cD2H, which incorporates a variable allometric ratio (VAR), was used to fit to the biomass data of the bolewood, bolebark, live branch and leaf components of Larix gmelinii. Residual analysis showed that the VAR model significantly improved the estimation of live branch, leaf and bolebark biomass, and it provided less biased estimates compared with the CAR model, lnW=lna+blnD or lnW=lna+blnD2H. The VAR model is superior to the CAR model, particularly when the allometric relationships change in a linear fashion with increasing stem sizes.The aboveground biomass and net primary productivity of the stands were respectively 85.37 t·ha-1 and 9.86 t·ha-1·a-1 for young-aged group at the Southeastern Zone; 56.74 t·ha-1 and 7.29 t·ha-1·a-1 for young-aged group,72.34 t·ha-1 and 6.26 t·ha-1·a-1 for middle-aged group at the Central Zone; and 41.81 t·ha-1 and 5.29 t·ha·a-1 for young-aged group, 55.62 t·ha-1 and 5.02 t·ha-1·a-1 for middle-aged group at the Northern Zone. These data showed that the biomass and net primary productivity of the stands tended to decrease from the Southeastern Zone to the Northern Zone, or Southeastern Zone>Central Zone>Northern Zone.The reference ranges of the suitable density and leaf area index for stands of different zones were also given in this paper.
    Studies on the Characteristics of Mn, Cu and Zn Contents in the Aneurolepidium chinense Grassland of Northeast China
    Ge Ying, Li Jian-dong, Chang Jie
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  338-346. 
    Abstract ( 1618 )   PDF (487KB) ( 687 )   Save
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    The characteristics of the contents of Mn, Cu and Zn, which are essential trace elements for plants, of the tissues in the plant species of an Aneurolepidium chinense grassland(hayfield)was studied. We obtained the following results:(1) The element contents in all the organs of A. chinense changed greatly in the growing season. Significant variations were found among different organs in the concentrations of the tested elements. In general, the following overall trend was very obvious as far as the element concentrations were concerned, i. e., root>rhizome>stem>ear except for Zn, the concentration of which was higher in leaves than in stems. The concentrations of Mn, Cu and Zn in the roots of other species in the community were also higher than in the aboveground parts.(2) S-shaped curves could be used to describe the seasonal dynamics of the concentrations of Mn,Cu and Zn in the aboveground parts of A. chinense, though the peak concentrations of different elements did not occur simultaneously. The dynamics of Mn, Cu and Zn in the aboveground parts of Carex duriuscula and Heleocharis acicularis could roughly be expressed by using a double-peaked curve that resembled the seasonal dynamics of their biomass.(3) The distribution of these elements in different organs followed an order of root>>stem>leaf>ear. This trend could be applicable to the biomass. The ratios of Mn and Cu accumulated in different aboveground organs to the total amount accumulated in the entire plant were lower than those of the biomass. The ratio of Zn in aboveground organs to the total plant was roughly the same as biomass.(4) The ratios of Mn, Cu and Zn accumulated in the community to the total reserves of the soil were 0.10% 0.33% and 0.09% respectively.
    Preliminary Study on Biomass of Artemisia ordosica Community in Ordos Plateau Sandland of China
    Wang Qing-suo, Li Bo
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  347-353. 
    Abstract ( 2050 )   PDF (368KB) ( 830 )   Save
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    The spatial pattern and seasonal dynamics of the aboveground and belowground biomass in Artemisia ordosica communities were studied at Ordos Sandy Grassland Improving Experimental Station of the Grassland Research Institute, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in 1991. The results showed that the aboveground biomass of the Artemisia ordosica community varied with community types, with the shifting sandland having the lowest biomass, while the semi-shifting sandland the highest. The aboveground biomass of a single dominant Artemisia ordosica community showed apparent seasonal dynamics, with a peak occurring in the middle of September or later. Thick roots accounted for the highest portion of belowground biomass in the Artemisia ordosica community, and the majority of the roots was concentrated in the upper layer (0—20cm) of the soil. The vertical distribution of belowground biomass can be described by exponential equations, showing clearly the trend of decreasing belowground biomass as a function of increasing soil depth.
    Effect of Fertilization on Sensitivity of Abaxial and Adaxial Stomatal Resistance in Winter Wheat Leaves Under Dryland Conditions
    Zhao Li-xin, Jing Jia-hai, Wei Qi-ke
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  354-361. 
    Abstract ( 2334 )   PDF (410KB) ( 945 )   Save
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    Studies on the response of stomatal resistance of plants to fertilization under dryland conditions can provide important insight as to the regulation of water use by means of soil fertility management. During the growing season, we measured the stomatal resistance on both sides of the winter wheat leaves with Li-1600 Steady State Porometer at different fertilization levels. The application of N and P fertilizers (Urea, Calcium superphosphate and rapeseed cake) decreased the leaf water potential of winter wheat Fertilization resulted in apparently different responses of abaxial and adaxial stomata1 resistance to the changes of environmental factors when there was a water deficit in crop plants. The abaxial stomatal resistance was more responsive to fertilization than adaxial stomatal resistance. The abaxial stomatal resistance increased more rapidly and to a larger extent than adaxial stomatal resistance with increasing fertilization levels. Both abaxial and adaxial stomatal resistances increased sharply in an immediate response to fertilization. After that, there was a slow but linear increase of stomatal resistances with the increase of fertilization levels. Our results also showed that the ratio of abaxial to adaxial stomatal resistance (Rab/Rad) increased linearly with increasing fertilizer-application levels, regardless of the water potentials that were greatly affected by fertilization. We concluded that, under dryland conditions,fertilization had effect on the improvement of the sensitivity of abaxial stomatal resistance to the changes of environmental factors.
    Characteristics of Spring Wheat Evapotranspiration at Oasis Ecological Environment and its Influencing Factors
    Zheng Hai-lei, Huang Zi-chen
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  362-371. 
    Abstract ( 2490 )   PDF (540KB) ( 793 )   Save
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    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivvm cv. "3131") was subject to three soil water regimes in the tanks of lysimeter at northern part of Linze Oasis which is located in the Hexi Corridor, The observations of evapotranspiration (ET) ,transpiration of single leaf, various ecological factors and some biological parameters were conducted in both typical fine day and overcast day and during the whole life span of wheat. The results showed that the total ET of spring wheat during its life span were 593mm, 365mm and 280mm for sufficient water supply, moderate water supply and insufficient water supply, respectively, and the average daily ETs for the three soil regimes were 5.5mm, 3.4mm and 2.8mm. The possible impacts of various biological and ecological factors on ET and wheat leaf transpiration were presented in the paper. Regression and correlation analysis demonstrated that the order of correlation coefficients of various biological factors with leaf transpiration was leaf water potential>leaf stomatal conductance>leaf temperature for sufficient water supply, and leaf water potential>leaf temperature>leaf stomatal conductance for other two soil water regimes; and the order of correlation coefficients of various ecological factors with ET is photosynthetically active radiation>net irradiance>soil temperature in 20cm depth, and air water vapor deficit>soil temperature in 15cm depth, while ambient temperature>soil temperature in 10cm, 0cm and 5cm depths.
    Study on the Dynamics and Succession of Aquatic Macrophyte Communities in the Zhushun Lake, Harbin
    Yu Dan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  372-378. 
    Abstract ( 2463 )   PDF (450KB) ( 803 )   Save
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    In this paper, I discussed the species composition and dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in the Zhushun Lake based upon results of 10 years observations. I also analyzed the replacement of construction species and its affecting factors. It appears that lake siltation is the key factor responsible for the succession of aquatic macrophyte communities. Coverage, density, frequency and importance value were used to describe the quantitative characteristics of the community. The dominant and subdominant species at different stages of the succession were classified based on importance values. The stratification of the communities was determined by using the life-form spectrum of the community. The biomass models of the above and under-water strata were established. The results show that the disappearing rate of species accelerates as the accumulation rate of lake sediments increases. It also demonstrates that the transparency of water only affects the distribution of the submerged plants, and the orthophosphorus concentration of the water is one of the factors limiting the productivity of aquatic macrophyte communities.
    Canonical Indicator Species Analysis, A New Extrinsic Classification Technique
    Zhang Jin-tun
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  379-384. 
    Abstract ( 2586 )   PDF (351KB) ( 763 )   Save
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    A new extrinsic method of vegetation classification, Canonical Indicator Species Analysis, is described in this paper. Based on Canonical Correspondence Analysis axes, this technique combines vegetation data and environmental data together and provides better results in the analysis of vegetation-environment relationship. It is applied to the classification of mountain grasslands in Snowdonia, North Wales here, and the outcome of this application suggests that canonical indicator species analysis is an effective and easy-using methodology.
    Interpretation of Remote Sensing Data of the Forest and Shrub Vegetation in the Longwu River Valley, Qinghai Province
    Chen Gui-chen, Zhou Li-hua, Peng Min, Luo Ziu-yue, Wei Zhen-duo
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1994, 18 (4):  385-391. 
    Abstract ( 2391 )   PDF (454KB) ( 689 )   Save
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    The Longwu River in the Qinghai Province is one of the main tributaries of the Yellow River. The Longwu River Valley is one of the important areas of forest resources in the Qinghai Province. Based on the image analysis of the remote sensing data and field investigations, we studied the forest and Shrub vegetation in the Valley. Our results show that this region has some important characteristics of the forests distributed in the marginal zones of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Accordingly, We put forward some proposals on the rational use and conservation of forest resources for this region. Based on the current situation and distributional characteristics of the forest resources, we believe that the conservation and rational utilization of habitat conditions upon which the forests depend are as important as the conservation of forest resources.

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