植物生态学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (3): 587-597.doi: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2009.03.018

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

树木年轮火历史研究进展

王晓春1, 2; 及 莹1   

  1. (1 东北林业大学林学院,哈尔滨 150040); (2 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室,北京 100093)
  • 出版日期:2009-05-31 发布日期:2009-05-31
  • 通讯作者: 王晓春

REVIEW OF ADVANCES IN DENDROPYROCHRONOLOGY

WANG Xiao-Chun1, 2; JI Ying1   

  1. 1College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
  • Online:2009-05-31 Published:2009-05-31
  • Contact: WANG Xiao-Chun

摘要: 树木年轮火灾学作为树木年轮学和林火生态学的一个重要交叉学科, 主要利用树轮火疤准确确定火灾发生年代, 从而研究过去和现在的火灾变化规律。树轮火灾学以其定年准确、分辨率高和时间久远等特点在森林火灾研究中具有极其重要的作用。该文对树木年轮火历史国内外研究现状进行了简要评述, 国内树木年轮火历史研究尚处在起步阶段, 国外树木年轮火历史研究主要集中在以下几个方面: 1)火历史的时空格局特征, 主要包括林火发生的时间间隔、空间范围、强度、林火发生的时空关联、林火发生与立地条件的关系、林火发生与物种演替以及树轮火疤与其他方法相结合的火灾判断等内容; 2)火灾历史与全球气候变化的关系, 主要包括火灾与温度和降水关系, 如一般在当年干旱而前几年相对湿润时火灾发生; 火灾发生与大尺度气候事件也有一定的关联, 火灾一般发生在厄尔尼诺(El Niño)向拉尼娜(La Niña)转换的年代, 而且相位组合比单个事件更容易引发火灾; 3)火历史与人为活动及土地利用的关系, 战争和人口增加容易引发火灾, 而放牧活动却降低火灾发生频率, 20世纪以来的森林火抑制降低了火灾发生频率却增加了大火发生的可能性。最后对树木年轮火历史的未来进行了展望, 主要包括火灾时空格局的尺度效应、火历史变化的气候与人为驱动机制以及火历史研究方法的拓展等内容。

Abstract:
As a significant cross-discipline of dendrochronology and forest fire ecology, dendropyrochronology is the science that uses tree rings to date and study past and present changes in wildfires, dating the fire scars left in tree rings to determine how often fires occurred in the past. Dendropyrochronology has great advantages in forest fire history research due to its exact dating, high yearly resolution and long temporal span. This paper briefly reviews advances in Chinese and foreign dendropyrochronology. Chinese dendropyrochronology research is still at the beginning stage, while the study abroad mainly focuses on three items. 1) Spatio-temporal regimes of fire history, which mainly includes fire return interval, spatial extent and severity, spatio-temporal interaction, relationship between forest fire occurrence and standing environment, effect of forest fire on species succession, integration of fire scar and other methods to precisely date fire occurrence. 2) Influence of global climate change on fire history. Temperature and precipitation are the main climatic factors influencing fire occurrence. For example, when it is dry in a year after relatively wet years, forest fire is inclined to occur. Fire history is also related to large-scale climatic events. For instance, fire always occurs in the years of transition from El Niño to La Niña, and phase combination of large-scale climatic events is more likely than a single event to lead to fire. 3) Relationship between fire history and human activity and land-use. Wars and increased population easily lead to fire occurrence, while grazing activity can decrease fire occurrence. Forest fire exclusion since the beginning of 20th century has decreased fire occurrence while increasing the possibility of large fire. The prospects of dendropyrochronology research mainly include: scale effect of fire spatio-temporal pattern, driving mechanisms of fire variation on climate change and human activity and development of fire history research methods.