Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (7): 661-673.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0063

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 on sunny and cloudy days over a reed wetland in the Yellow River Delta, China

CHU Xiao-Jing1,2, HAN Guang-Xuan1,*(), XING Qing-Hui1,2, YU Jun-Bao1, WU Li-Xin3, LIU Hai-Fang3, WANG Guang-Mei1, MAO Pei-Li1   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003, China
    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3Administration Bureau of the Yellow River Delta National Nature Reserve, Dongying, Shandong 257091, China
  • Online:2015-07-22 Published:2015-07-01
  • Contact: Guang-Xuan HAN
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract: Aims Clouds and aerosols change the radiation level on the land surface and indirectly alter the microclimate. Shifts in sunny and cloudy days, for example, would affect the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) between land surface and the atmosphere. Our objective was to analyze the influence of shifts in sunny and cloudy days on NEE, its responses to light and temperature in a reed (Phragmites australis) wetland in the Yellow River Delta, China. Methods Using the eddy covariance technique, we measured the temporal changes in NEE during the growing season over the reed wetland. We selected 12 paired-days during the measurement period following two criteria: (1) the two paired days are adjacent, with one sunny day and another cloudy day; (2) no rain event during the two days. We assumed that: (1) live biomass and leaf area index (LAI) are the same during any paired-days; (2) soil moisture has no significant difference between the two adjacent days. With these criteria, we expected that radiation condition exerted the major control on NEE. Important findings Diurnal change of NEE showed a distinct U-shaped pattern on both sunny and cloudy days, but with substantial variation in its amplitude. During the daytime, NEE on sunny days was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that on the cloudy days (n = 12). The daytime NEE response to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was modeled with the rectangular hyperbolic function (Eq. (1)) for both sunny and cloudy days. There appeared a significant reduction (p < 0.01) in light-saturated NEE (Amax) on cloudy days compared to the sunny days. Similarly, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in daytime ecosystem respiration (Reco,daytime) on cloudy days as compared to that of the sunny day although there existed significant exponential relationships between Reco,daytime and air temperature on both sunny and cloudy days. In addition, the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Q10) on cloudy days (1.9) was significantly lower than that of sunny days (5.5). Stepwise multiple regression analyses suggested that PAR and T explained 63% of the changes in NEE between sunny and cloudy days. By taking advantage of the natural shift of sunny and cloudy days without disturbance to the plant-soil system, our results indicated that cloud cover significantly reduced the absorption capacity of CO2 in the wetland. Thus, it is necessary to take into account the shits between sunny and cloudy days on NEE when predicting the ecosystem responses to future climate in the wetland.

Key words: sunny day, cloudy day, net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), daytime ecosystem respiration (Reco, daytime), light response, temperature response

Fig. 1

Diurnal changes in net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the 12 paired-days (i.e., a sunny day and an adjacent cloudy day) during the 2013 growing season in the Yellow River Delta wetland. Black and grey solid lines represent PAR on sunny and cloudy days, respectively."

Fig. 2

Average diurnal variations of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and air temperature (T) on sunny days and cloudy days during the 2013 growing season in the Yellow River Delta. Bars represent standard errors of the means of 12 sunny days and 12 adjacent cloudy days (mean ± SE). ***, p < 0.001."

Fig. 3

Relationships between daytime net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) between sunny days and cloudy days during the 2013 growing season in the Yellow River Delta wetland. Black solid line represents fitting curve of sunny days, and grey line represents fitting curve of cloudy days."

Fig. 4

Relationships between daytime ecosystem respiration (Reco,daytime) and air temperature (T) on sunny days and cloudy days during the 2013 growing season in the Yellow River Delta wetland. Black solid line represents fitting curve of sunny days, and grey line represents fitting curve of cloudy days."

Table 1

Comparison of the analog parameters from daytime net ecosystem exchange of CO2(NEE) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using a Michaelis-Menten model (Eq.(3)) between sunny days and cloudy days in the wetland"

Table 2

Estimated empirical coefficient of multiple liner regression models for changes in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and air temperature (T) on sunny and cloudy days during the growing season in the Yellow River Delta"

方程 Equation R2 p n
晴天 Sunny day NEE = -0.005PAR - 0.28T + 4.06 0.41 <0.001 288
阴天 Cloudy day NEE = -0.006PAR - 0.107T + 2.67 0.42 <0.001 288
阴天和晴天差量 Difference between sunny and cloudy days ΔNEE = -0.004ΔPAR - 0.123ΔT - 2.54 0.63 <0.001 288
[1] Aires LMI, Pio CA, Pereira JS (2008). Carbon dioxide exchange above a Mediterranean C3/C4 grassland during two climatologically contrasting years.Global Change Biology, 14, 539-555.
[2] Alton PB (2008). Reduced carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems under overcast skies compared to clear skies.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148, 1641-1653.
[3] Alton PB, North PR, Los SO (2007). The impact of diffuse sunlight on canopy light-use efficiency, gross photosynthetic product and net ecosystem exchange in three forest biomes.Global Change Biology, 13, 776-787.
[4] Bai YF, Wang J, Zhang BC, Zhang ZH, Liang J (2012). Comparing the impact of cloudiness on carbon dioxide exchange in a grassland and a maize cropland in northwestern China.Ecological Research, 27, 615-623.
[5] Baldocchi D (1997). Measuring and modelling carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange over a temperate broad-leaved forest during the 1995 summer drought.Plant, Cell & Environment, 20, 1108-1122.
[6] Baldocchi D, Tang JW, Xu LK (2006). How switches and lags in biophysical regulators affect spatial-temporal variation of soil respiration in an oak-grass savanna.Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 111, G02008.
[7] Bar-Or RZ, Koren I, Altaratz O (2010). Estimating cloud field coverage using morphological analysis.Environmental Research Letters, 5, 123-129.
[8] Berry ZC, Smith WK (2012). Cloud pattern and water relations in Picea rubens and Abies fraseri, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 162-163, 27-34.
[9] Bonneville MC, Strachan IB, Humphreys ER, Roulet NT (2008). Net ecosystem CO2 exchange in a temperate cattail marsh in relation to biophysical properties.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148, 69-81.
[10] Bu RC, Wang XL, Xiao DN (1999). Analysis on landscape elements and fragmentation of Yellow River delta.Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 10, 321-324.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [布仁仓, 王宪礼, 肖笃宁 (1999). 黄河三角洲景观组分判定与景观破碎化分析. 应用生态学报, 10, 321-324.]
[11] Chapman SJ, Thurlow M (1996). The influence of climate on CO2 and CH4 emissions from organic soils.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 79, 205-217.
[12] Cui SQ (2002). Influence of water discharge cut-off of Huanghe on environment of its delta.Marine Sciences, 26(7), 42-46.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [崔树强 (2002). 黄河断流对黄河三角洲生态环境的影响. 海洋科学, 26(7), 42-46.]
[13] Curiel Yuste J, Baldocchi DD, Gershenson A, Goldstein A, Misson L, Wong S (2007). Microbial soil respiration and its dependency on carbon inputs, soil temperature and moisture.Global Change Biology, 13, 2018-2035.
[14] Davidson EA, Janssens IA (2006). Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change.Nature, 440, 165-173.
[15] Dengel S, Grace J (2010). Carbon dioxide exchange and canopy conductance of two coniferous forests under various sky conditions.Oecologia, 164, 797-808.
[16] Doughty CE, Flanner MG, Goulden ML (2010). Effect of smoke on subcanopy shaded light, canopy temperature, and carbon dioxide uptake in an Amazon rainforest. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB3015.
[17] Edwards EJ, Benham DG, Marland LA, Fitter AH (2004). Root production is determined by radiation flux in a temperate grassland community.Global Change Biology, 10, 209-227.
[18] Falge E, Baldocchi D, Olson R, Anthoni P, Aubinet M, Bernhofer C, Burba G, Clement R, Dolman H, Granier A, Gross P, Grünwald T, Hollinger D, Jensen NO, Katul G, Keronen P, Kowalski A, Lai CT, Law BE, Meyers T, Moncrieff J, Moors E, Munger JW, Pilegaard K, Rannik Ü, Rebmann C, Suyker A, Tenhunen J, Tu K, Verma S, Vesala T, Wilson K, Wofsy S (2001). Gap filling strategies for defensible annual sums of net ecosystem exchange.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 107, 43-69.
[19] Fan YZ, Zhang XZ, Shi PL (2009). Influence of diffuse radiation on the net CO2 exchange of alpine meadow ecosystem on Tibet Plateau.Geographical Research, 28, 1673-1681.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [范玉枝, 张宪洲, 石培礼 (2009). 散射辐射对西藏高原高寒草甸净生态系统CO2交换的影响. 地理研究, 28, 1673-1681.]
[20] Flanagan LB, Johnson BG (2005). Interacting effects of temperature, soil moisture and plant biomass production on ecosystem respiration in a northern temperate grassland.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 130, 237-253.
[21] Freedman JM, Fitzjarrald DR, Moore KE, Sakai RK (2001). Boundary layer clouds and vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks.Journal of Climate, 14, 180-197.
[22] Gershenson A, Bader NE, Cheng WX (2009). Effects of substrate availability on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition.Global Change Biology, 15, 176-183.
[23] Glenn AJ, Flanagan LB, Syed KH, Carlson PJ (2006). Comparison of net ecosystem CO2 exchange in two peatlands in western Canada with contrasting dominant vegetation, Sphagnum and Carex.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 140, 115-135.
[24] Graham EA, Mulkey SS, Kitajima K, Phillips NG, Wright SJ (2003). Cloud cover limits net CO2 uptake and growth of a rainforest tree during tropical rainy seasons.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 572-576.
[25] Gu LH, Baldocchi D, Verma SB, Black TA, Vesala T, Falge EM, Dowty PR (2002). Advantages of diffuse radiation for terrestrial ecosystem productivity. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, ACL 2-1-ACL 2-23 D6, doi: 10.1029/2001 JD001242.
[26] Gu LH, Fuentes JD, Shugart HH, Staebler RM, Black TA (1999). Responses of net ecosystem exchanges of carbon dioxide to changes in cloudiness: Results from two North American deciduous forests.Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 31421-31434.
[27] Gu S, Tang YH, Du MY, Kato T, Li YN, Cui XY, Zhao XQ (2003). Short-term variation of CO2 flux in relation to environmental controls in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau.Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 4670.
[28] Han GX, Luo YQ, Li DJ, Xia JY, Xing QH, Yu JB (2014a). Ecosystem photosynthesis regulates soil respiration on a diurnal scale with a short-term time lag in a coastal wetland.Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 68, 85-94.
[29] Han GX, Xing QH, Yu JB, Luo YQ, Li DJ, Yang LQ, Wang GM, Mao PL, Xie BH, Mikle N (2014b). Agricultural reclamation effects on ecosystem CO2 exchange of a coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta.Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 196, 187-198.
[30] Han GX, Yang LQ, Yu JB, Wang GM, Mao PL, Gao YJ (2013). Environmental controls on net ecosystem CO2 exchange over a reed (Phragmites australis) wetland in the Yellow River Delta, China.Estuaries and Coasts, 36, 401-413.
[31] Han GX, Yu JB, Li HB, Yang LQ, Wang GM, Mao PL, Gao YJ (2012). Winter soil respiration from different vegetation patches in the Yellow River Delta, China.Environmental Management, 50, 39-49.
[32] Hao YB, Cui XY, Wang YF, Mei XR, Kang XM, Wu N, Luo P, Zhu D (2011). Predominance of precipitation and temperature controls on ecosystem CO2 exchange in Zoige alpine wetlands of southwest China.Wetlands, 31, 413-422.
[33] Heinemeyer A, Ineson P, Ostle N, Fitter AH (2006). Respiration of the external mycelium in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis shows strong dependence on recent photosynthates and acclimation to temperature.New Phytologist, 171, 159-170.
[34] Janssens IA, Pilegaard K (2003). Large seasonal changes in Q10 of soil respiration in a beech forest.Global Change Biology, 9, 911-918.
[35] Jassal RS, Black TA, Novak MD, Gaumont-Guay D, Nesic Z (2008). Effect of soil water stress on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an 18-year-old temperate Douglas- fir stand.Global Change Biology, 14, 1305-1318.
[36] Jia X, Wang WC, Chen YH, Huang JP, Chen JM, Zhang H, Bai HT, Zhang P (2010). Influence of dust aerosols on cloud radiative forcing over Northern China.China Environmental Science, 30, 1009-1014.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [贾漩, 王文彩, 陈勇航, 黄建平, 陈建民, 张华, 白鸿涛, 张萍 (2010). 华北地区沙尘气溶胶对云辐射强迫的影响. 中国环境科学, 30, 1009-1014.]
[37] Jiang CD, Wang X, Gao HY, Shi L, Chow WS (2011). Systemic regulation of leaf anatomical structure, photosynthetic performance, and high-light tolerance in Sorghum.Plant Physiology, 155, 1416-1424.
[38] Jiang Y, Hu HB, Zhang XS, Xue JH (2011). The carbon flux and its environmental factors in a north subtropical secondary oak forest ecosystem. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University (Natural Science Edition), 35(3), 38-42.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [蒋琰, 胡海波, 张学仕,薛建辉 (2011). 北亚热带次生栎林碳通量及其影响因子研究. 南京林业大学学报(自然科学版), 35(3), 38-42.]
[39] Karhu K, Fritze H, Tuomi M, Vanhala P, Spetz P, Kitunen V, Liski J (2010). Temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition in two boreal forest soil profiles.Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 42, 72-82.
[40] Kirschbaum MUF (1995). The temperature dependence of soil organic-matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storage.Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 27, 753-760.
[41] Lafleur PM, Roulet NT, Admiral SW (2001). Annual cycle of CO2 exchange at a bog peatland.Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106, 3071-3081.
[42] Law BE, Falge E, Gu L, Baldocchi DD, Bakwin P, Berbigier P, Davis K, Dolman AJ, Falk M, Fuentes JD, Goldstein A, Granier A, Grelle A, Hollinger D, Janssens IA, Jarvis P, Jensen NO, Katul G, Mahli Y, Matteucci G, Meyers T, Monson R, Munger W, Oechel W, Olson R, Pilegaard K, Paw U KT, Thorgeirsson H, Valentini R, Verma S, Vesala T, Wilson K, Wofsy S (2002). Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 113, 97-120.
[43] Letts MG, Lafleur PM, Roulet NT (2005). On the relationship between cloudiness and net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange in a peatland ecosystem.Ecoscience, 12, 53-59.
[44] Liu J, Tong XJ, Zhang JS, Meng P, Li J, Zheng N (2014). Impacts of solar radiation on net ecosystem carbon exchange in a mixed plantation in the Xiaolangdi Area.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 34, 2118-2127.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [刘佳, 同小娟, 张劲松, 孟平, 李俊, 郑宁 (2014). 太阳辐射对黄河小浪底人工混交林净生态系统碳交换的影响. 生态学报, 34, 2118-2127.]
[45] Liu YF, Yu GR, Wen XF, Wang YH, Song X, Li J, Sun XM, Yang FT, Chen YR, Liu QJ (2006). Seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes from subtropical plantation coniferous ecosystem.Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 49, 99-109.
[46] Lloyd J, Taylor JA (1994). On the temperature dependence of soil respiration.Functional Ecology, 8, 315-323.
[47] Ma JY, Liang H, Luo Y, Li SK (2011). Variation trend of direct and diffuse radiation in China over recent 50 years.Acta Physica Sinica, 60, 859-872.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [马金玉, 梁宏, 罗勇, 李世奎 (2011). 中国近50年太阳直接辐射和散射辐射变化趋势特征. 物理学报, 60, 859-872.]
[48] Min QL (2005). Impacts of aerosols and clouds on forest- atmosphere carbon exchange.Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 110, D06203. doi: 10.1029/2004 JD004858.
[49] Monson RK, Turnipseed AA, Sparks JP, Harley PC, Scott-Denton LE, Sparks K, Huxman TE (2002). Carbon sequestration in a high-elevation, subalpine forest.Global Change Biology, 8, 459-478.
[50] Moyano FE, Kutsch WL, Rebmann C (2008). Soil respiration fluxes in relation to photosynthetic activity in broad-leaf and needle-leaf forest stands.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148, 135-143.
[51] Mu CC, Shi LY, Sun XX (2009). Fluxes and controls of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a marsh wetland of Xiaoxing’an Mountains, northeastern China.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 33, 617-623.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [牟长城, 石兰英, 孙晓新 (2009). 小兴安岭典型草丛沼泽湿地CO2、CH4和N2O的排放动态及其影响因素. 植物生态学报, 33, 617-623.]
[52] Niyogi D, Chang HI, Saxena VK, Holt T, Alapaty K, Booker F, Chen F, Davis KJ, Holben B, Matsui T, Meyers T, Oechel WC, Peilke RA, Well R, Wilson K, Xue YK (2004). Direct observations of the effects of aerosol loading on net ecosystem CO2 exchanges over different landscapes.Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L20506.
[53] Pingintha N, Leclerc MY, Beasley JP, Durden D, Zhang G, Senthong C, Rowland D (2010). Hysteresis response of daytime net ecosystem exchange during drought.Biogeosciences, 7, 1159-1170.
[54] Qi Y, Fang SB, Zhou WZ (2014). Variation and spatial distribution of surface solar radiation in China over recent 50 years.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 34, 7444-7453.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [齐月, 房世波, 周文佐 (2014). 近50年来中国地面太阳辐射变化及其空间分布. 生态学报, 34, 7444-7453.]
[55] Reichstein M, Fagle E, Baldocchi D, Palale D, Aubinet M, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Buchmann N, Gilmanov T, Granier A, Grünwald T, Havránková K, Ilvesniemi H, Janous D, Knohl A, Laurila T, Lohila A, Loustau D, Matteucci G, Meyer T, Migiletta F, Ourcival JM, Pumpaney J, Rambal S, Rotenberg E, Sanz M, Tenhunen J, Seufert G, Vaccari F, Vesala T, Yakir D, Valentini R (2005). On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and ecosystem respiration: Review and improved algorithm.Global Change Biology, 11, 1424-1439.
[56] Roderick ML, Farquhar GD, Berry SL, Noble IR (2001). On the direct effect of clouds and atmospheric particles on the productivity and structure of vegetation.Oecologia, 129, 21-30.
[57] Ruimy A, Jarvis PG, Baldocchi DD, Saugier B (1995). CO2 fluxes over plant canopies and solar radiation: A review.Advances in Ecological Research, 26, 1-68.
[58] Sasaki A, Hagimori Y, Nakatubo T, Hoshika A (2009). Tidal effects on the organic carbon mineralization rate under aerobic conditions in sediments of an intertidal estuary.Ecological Research, 24, 723-729.
[59] Shi PL, Sun XM, Xu LL, Zhang XZ, He YT, Zhang DQ, Yu GR (2006). The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its influence factor in pole grass meadow, Tibet Plateau.Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 36, 194-203.
(in Chinese) [石培礼, 孙晓敏, 徐玲玲, 张宪洲, 何永涛, 张东秋, 于贵瑞 (2006). 西藏高原草原化嵩草草甸生态系统CO2净交换及其影响因子. 中国科学D辑: 地球科学, 36, 194-203.]
[60] Silvola J, Alm J, Ahlholm U, Nykanen H, Martikainen PJ (1996). CO2 fluxes from peat in boreal mires under varying temperature and moisture conditions.Journal of Ecology, 84, 219-228.
[61] Still CJ, Riley WJ, Biraud SC, Noone DC, Buenning NH, Randerson JT, Torn MS, Welker J, White JWC, Vachon R, Farquhar GD, Berry JA (2009). Influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CO18O exchanges.Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences, 114, G01018. doi: 10.1029/2007JG000675.
[62] Syed KH, Flanagen LB, Carlson PJ, Glenn AJ, van Gaalen KE (2006). Environmental control of net ecosystem CO2 exchange in a treed, moderately rich fen in northern Alberta.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 140, 97-114.
[63] Tang JW, Baldocchi DD, Xu LK (2005). Tree photosynthesis modulates soil respiration on a diurnal time scale.Global Change Biology, 11, 1298-1304.
[64] Tholen D, Boom C, Zhu XG (2012). Opinion: Prospects for improving photosynthesis by altering leaf anatomy.Plant Science, 197, 92-101.
[65] Tong XJ, Li J, Liu D (2011). Characteristics and controlling factors of photosynthesis in a maize ecosystem on the North China Plain.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 31, 4889-4899.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [同小娟, 李俊, 刘渡 (2011). 华北平原玉米田生态系统光合作用特征及影响因素. 生态学报, 31, 4889-4899.]
[66] Urban O, Janouš D, Acosta M, Czerný R, Marková I, Navrátil M, Pavelka M, Pokorný R, Šprtová M, Zhang R, Špunda V, Grace J, Marek MV (2007). Ecophysiological controls over the net ecosystem exchange of mountain spruce stand. Comparison of the response in direct vs. diffuse solar radiation.Global Change Biology, 13, 157-168.
[67] Wingate L, Ogée J, Burlett R, Bosc A, Devaux M, Grace J, Loustau D, Gessler A (2010). Photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and its relationship to the carbon isotope signals of stem, soil and ecosystem respiration.New Phytologist, 188, 576-589.
[68] Xiang W, Freeman C (2009). Annual variation of temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon decomposition in North peatlands: Implications for thermal responses of carbon cycling to global warming.Environmental Geology, 58, 499-508.
[69] Xing QH, Han GX, Yu JB, Wu LX, Yang LQ, Mao PL, Wang GM, Xie BH (2014). Net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its controlling factors during the growing season in an inter-tidal salt marsh in the Yellow River Estuary, China.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 34, 4966-4979.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [邢庆会, 韩广轩, 于君宝, 吴立新, 杨利琼, 毛培利, 王光美, 谢宝华 (2014). 黄河口潮间盐沼湿地生长季净生态系统CO2交换特征及其影响因素. 生态学报, 34, 4966-4979.]
[70] Xu M, Qi Y (2001). Spatial and seasonal variations of Q10 determined by soil respiration measurements at a Sierra Nevadan forest.Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15, 687-696.
[71] Xue HX, Li F, Li Q, Wang LX, Wang YL, Hu ZH (2012). Research progress on carbon flux over agro-ecosystem based on the eddy covariance method in China.Journal of Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, 4, 226-232.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [薛红喜, 李峰, 李琪, 王连喜, 王云龙, 胡正华 (2012). 基于涡度相关法的中国农田生态系统碳通量研究进展. 南京信息工程大学学报, 4, 226-232.]
[72] Yang LQ, Han GX, Yu JB, Wu LX, Zhu M, Xing QH, Wang GM, Mao PL (2013). Effects of reclamation on net ecosystem CO2 exchange in wetland in the Yellow River Delta, China.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 37, 503-516.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [杨利琼, 韩广轩, 于君宝, 吴立新, 朱敏, 邢庆会, 王光美, 毛培利 (2013). 开垦对黄河三角洲湿地净生态系统CO2交换的影响. 植物生态学报, 37, 503-516.]
[73] Yang QP, Xu M, Liu HS, Wang JS, Liu LX, Chi YG, Zheng YP (2011). Impact factors and uncertainties of the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 31, 2301-2311.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [杨庆朋, 徐明, 刘洪升, 王劲松, 刘丽香, 迟永刚, 郑云普 (2011). 土壤呼吸温度敏感性的影响因素和不确定性. 生态学报, 31, 2301-2311.]
[74] Zhang BC, Cao JJ, Bai YF, Yang SJ, Hu L, Ning ZG (2011). Effects of cloudiness on carbon dioxide exchange over an irrigated maize cropland in northwestern China.Biogeosciences Discussions, 8, 1669-1691.
[75] Zhang LM, Yu GR, Sun XM, Wen XF, Ren CY, Song X, Liu YF, Guan DX, Yan JH, Zhang YP (2006). Seasonal variation of carbon exchange of typical forest ecosystems along the eastern forest transect in China.Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 49, 47-62.
(in Chinese) [张雷明, 于贵瑞, 孙晓敏, 温学发, 任传友, 宋霞, 刘允芬, 关德新, 闫俊华, 张一平 (2006). 中国东部森林样带典型生态系统碳收支的季节变化. 中国科学D辑: 地球科学, 36, 45-59.]
[76] Zhang M, Yu GR, Zhang LM, Sun XM, Wen XF, Han SJ (2009). Effects of solar radiation on net ecosystem exchange of broadleaved-korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain, China.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 33, 270-282.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [张弥, 于贵瑞, 张雷明, 孙晓敏, 温学发, 韩士杰 (2009). 太阳辐射对长白山阔叶红松林净生态系统碳交换的影响. 植物生态学报, 33, 270-282.]
[77] Zhang M, Yu GR, Zhang LM, Sun XM, Wen XF, Han SJ, Yan JH (2010). Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China.Biogeosciences Discussions, 6, 8215-8245.
[78] Zhao L, Li J, Xu S, Zhou H, Li Y, Gu S, Zhao X (2010). Seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in an alpine wetland meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.Biogeosciences, 7, 1207-1221.
[79] Zhao ZH, Zhang LP, Kang WX, Tian DL, Xiang WH, Yan WD, Peng CH (2011). Characteristics of CO2 flux in a Chinese fir plantation ecosystem in Huitong County, Hunan Province.Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 47, 6-12.
[80] Zheng Y, Zhao Z, Zhou H, Zhou JJ (2011). Effects of sunny and cloudy days on photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Black Locust.Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 47(5), 60-67.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [郑元, 赵忠, 周慧, 周靖靖 (2011). 晴天和阴天对刺槐光合生理特性的影响. 林业科学, 47(5), 60-67.]
[81] Zhou L, Zhou GS, Jia QY (2009). Annual cycle of CO2 exchange over a reed (Phragmites australis) wetland in Northeast China.Aquatic Botany, 91, 91-98.
[82] Zhou LY, Jia BR, Zeng W, Wang Y, Zhou GS (2010). Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of virgin Larix gmelinii forest and its characteristics of light response.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 30, 6919-6926.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [周丽艳, 贾丙瑞, 曾伟, 王宇, 周广胜 (2010). 原始兴安落叶松林生长季净生态系统CO2交换及其光响应特征. 生态学报, 30, 6919-6926.]
[1] Li Yi-Bo, SONG He, ZHOU Li, XU Zhen-Zhu, ZHOU Guang-Sheng. Modeling study on photosynthetic-light response curves of a C4 plant, maize [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2017, 41(12): 1289-1300.
[2] WU Hui, DAI Hai-Fang, ZHANG Ju-Song, JIAO Xiao-Ling, LIU Cui, SHI Jun-Yi, FAN Zhi-Chao, and ALIYAN?Rouzi. Responses of photosynthetic characteristics to low temperature stress and recovery treatment in cotton seedling leaves [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2014, 38(10): 1124-1134.
[3] XIA Jiang-Bao, ZHANG Shu-Yong, ZHAO Zi-Guo, ZHAO Yan-Yun, Gao Yuan, GU Guang-Yi, and SUN Jing-Kuan. Critical effect of photosynthetic efficiency in Salix matsudana to soil moisture and its threshold grade in shell ridge island [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2013, 37(9): 851-860.
[4] WANG Rong-Rong, XIA Jiang-Bao, YANG Ji-Hua, ZHAO Yan-Yun, LIU Jing-Tao, and SUN Jing-Kuan. Comparison of light response models of photosynthesis in leaves of Periploca sepium under drought stress in sand habitat formed from seashells [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2013, 37(2): 111-121.
[5] SU Hua, LI Yong-Geng, SU Ben-Ying, and SUN Jian-Xin. Effects of groundwater decline on photosynthetic characteristics and stress tolerance of Ulmus pumila in Hunshandake Sandy Land, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(3): 177-186.
[6] CHEN Wei-Ying, CHEN Zhen-Yong, LUO Fu-Yan, PENG Zheng-Song, and YU Mao-Qun. Comparison between modified exponential model and common models of light-response curve [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(12): 1277-1285.
[7] JIAO Juan-Yu, YIN Chun-Ying, CHEN Ke. Effects of soil water and nitrogen supply on the photosynthetic characteristics of Jatropha curcas seedlings [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2011, 35(1): 91-99.
Full text



[1] Kang Le. The Chemical Defenses of plants to phytophagous Insects[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(04): 22 -27 .
[2] HUANG Kai-Yao;GUO Hou-Liang and YI Ping. Effects of Salt Stress on Cell Structure and N2 Fixation in Blue-Green Alga Anabaena cylindrica[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(03): 54 -56 .
[3] Zhang Jing-tan. Abbreviations for Some Commonly Used Term[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1985, 3(01): 57 -58 .
[4] TIAN Xin-Zhi. On Plant Illustration and Artistic Drawing and Painting[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(04): 470 -476 .
[5] LI Xiu-Lan WU Cheng DENG Xiao-Jian YANG Zhi-Rong. Plant Height Genes and Their Progress of Molecular Biology Research in Rice[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(03): 264 -269 .
[6] LIU Hong-Tao LI Bing ZHOU Ren-Gang. Calcium_calmodulin Signal Transduction Pathway and Environment Stimulation[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2001, 18(05): 554 -559 .
[7] Renyi Gui;Yadi Liu;Xiaoqin Guo;Haibao Ji;Yue Jia;Mingzeng Yu;Wei Fang*. Effects of Dose of 137Cs-γ Irradiation on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters for Leaves of Seedlings of Phyllostachys heterocycla ‘Pubescens’[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2010, 45(01): 66 -72 .
[8] Sanxiong Fu;Cunkou Qi*. Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed in Seeds of Brassica napus Planted in Nanjing and Lhasa by Arabidopsis Microarray[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2009, 44(02): 178 -184 .
[9] Li Yunxiang, Liu Yucheng, Zhong Zhangcheng. Quantitative Structure and Dynamics of Leaf Populations of Gordonia acuminata on Jinyun Mountain[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1997, 21(1): 67 -76 .