Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (7): 749-760.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0288

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Spatiotemporal variation and scale effect of canopy leaf area index of larch plantation on a slope of the semi-humid Liupan Mountains, Ningxia, China

Ze-Bin LIU1, Yan-Hui WANG1,*(), Yu LIU2, Ao TIAN1, Ya-Rui WANG1, Hai-Jun ZUO1   

  1. 1Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Key Laboratory of Forestry Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100091, China
    and
    2College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2016-09-13 Accepted:2017-02-28 Online:2017-08-21 Published:2017-07-10
  • Contact: Yan-Hui WANG E-mail:wangyh@caf.ac.cn
  • About author:

    KANG Jing-yao(1991-), E-mail: kangjingyao_nj@163.com

Abstract:

Aims Leaf area index (LAI) is an important canopy structure parameter characterizing ecological and hydrological processes, such as forest growth, canopy interception and transpiration. Forest LAI is limited by both light and soil water availability, thus may vary with slope position and seasonality. This study is aimed at the spatiotemporal variation of LAI and its relationship with environmental variables. Methods A 34-years-old Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii planted forest situated on a typical slope located in a small watershed of Xiangshuihe within Liupan Mountains was selected for LAI observations. Sixteen plots along a 30 m wide transect along the slope was surveyed from May to October of 2015 to measure the monthly canopy LAI. Important findings It showed there was a remarkable difference of LAI among slope positions. The LAI in May decreased toward downslope direction with a scale effect of -0.02/100 m. Whereas for the period from June to August, LAI showed a nonlinear variation along slope positions: increasing from to top slope downward, reaching its maximum at the middle slope, and then decreasing to the slope foot. The scale effect of LAI was +0.15/100, +0.16/100, and +0.18/100 m in the slope range (downward positive) of 0-244.2 m, but -0.09/100, -0.08/100, and -0.07/100 m in the slope range of 244.2-425.1 m for June, July and August, respectively. The LAI increased toward downslope in September and October, with a slope scale effect of +0.03/100 m and +0.09/100 m, respectively. The seasonal variation of LAI-slope relationship showed a shift from the light and temperature control in the early growing season, to the soil water resources control in the mid growing season, and then to an integrated control of many factors in the late growing season. In the early growing season when soil moisture and nutrients were abundant, terrain shading limited the leaf growth in middle and downslope. From early to the mid growing season, the soil moisture on the slope was quickly depleted due to fast evapotranspiration and poor moisture retention of the coarse soil. On the other hand, average solar height increased, and allowed direct light radiation to penetrate to the middle then downslope. The result is that the leaf growth in the middle slope was the strongest in the mid growing season. During the late growing season, the temperature decreased fast in the mountain top to incur earlier leaf fall than the mountain foot. Thus the LAI exhibited the increasing trend toward the downslope.

Key words: Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii plantation, leaf area index (LAI), slope difference, seasonal variation, scale effect

Table 1

The basis information of Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii plantation plots on the study slope"

样地
Plot
海拔
Elevation (m)
坡度
Slope degree
(°)
水平坡长
Horizontal length (m)
坡位
Slope
position
林分密度
Stand
density (ind.·hm-2)
林冠郁
闭度
Canopy
density
平均胸径
Mean diameter
at breast
height (cm)
平均树高
Mean tree
height (m)
枝下高
Clear
length (m)
冠幅直径
Canopy
diameter
(m)
地上生物量
Aboveground biomass
(t•hm-2)
1 2β471.4 26.3 26.9 坡上 Upper 942 0.73 20.25 ± 3.46 16.71 ± 1.71 5.53 ± 1.03 3.22 ± 0.60 108.59
2 2β458.1 27.2 26.7 坡上 Upper 749 0.74 21.04 ± 3.91 17.04 ± 2.12 5.77 ± 1.06 3.58 ± 0.58 105.55
3 2β444.4 24.4 27.3 坡上 Upper 854 0.72 20.34 ± 4.22 17.04 ± 2.14 5.83 ± 0.94 4.31 ± 0.93 112.55
4 2β432.0 25.3 27.1 中上 Upper-middle 870 0.73 20.01 ± 5.00 17.40 ± 2.73 5.93 ± 0.90 4.07 ± 0.86 116.60
5 2β421.3 22.5 27.7 中上 Upper-middle 746 0.75 19.94 ± 3.65 17.54 ± 2.05 6.22 ± 0.95 3.22 ± 0.58 111.88
6 2β409.8 24.5 27.3 中上 Upper-middle 831 0.68 18.46 ± 5.60 15.72 ± 3.13 5.44 ± 1.19 3.53 ± 1.09 91.32
7 2β397.4 22.0 27.8 坡中 Middle 719 0.81 21.03 ± 4.56 17.94 ± 2.25 6.43 ± 1.24 3.41 ± 0.98 118.19
8 2β386.1 26.8 26.8 坡中 Middle 933 0.79 20.28 ± 5.65 17.12 ± 2.77 6.18 ± 1.30 3.37 ± 1.10 127.51
9 2β372.6 27.7 26.6 坡中 Middle 815 0.73 19.78 ± 4.70 17.87 ± 2.50 6.46 ± 1.13 3.29 ± 0.90 108.54
10 2β358.7 20.1 28.2 中下 Lower-middle 674 0.67 20.83 ± 4.64 18.24 ± 2.27 5.82 ± 0.88 3.76 ± 1.01 99.21
11 2β348.4 17.9 28.6 中下 Lower-middle 572 0.65 20.62 ± 4.68 17.75 ± 2.91 5.88 ± 1.10 3.46 ± 0.78 88.44
12 2β339.2 30.0 26.0 中下 Lower-middle 770 0.70 19.69 ± 5.68 17.04 ± 3.54 5.52 ± 1.03 3.23 ± 0.92 101.87
13 2β324.2 30.4 25.9 坡下 Lower 786 0.74 19.93 ± 5.08 18.07 ± 2.53 5.77 ± 1.11 2.81 ± 0.83 108.20
14 2β309.0 37.4 23.8 坡下 Lower 1β035 0.75 18.07 ± 5.08 16.57 ± 2.98 5.85 ± 1.25 2.93 ± 0.80 111.96
15 2β290.8 37.3 23.9 坡下 Lower 955 0.70 18.36 ± 5.43 15.97 ± 3.03 5.32 ± 0.95 3.38 ± 1.03 104.81
16 2β275.6 34.9 24.6 坡脚 Bottom 907 0.72 18.72 ± 4.06 16.19 ± 2.35 6.06 ± 0.93 3.33 ± 0.77 98.67

Fig. 1

The distribution of leaf area index (LAI) sampling point in Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii plantation plots."

Fig. 2

The variation of mean canopy leaf area index (LAI) of Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii during the whole growth season along the horizontal distance of plots from slope top."

Fig. 3

Variations of monthly canopy leaf area index (LAI) of Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii during growing season along the horizontal distance of plots from slope top."

Fig. 4

Variations of the ratio of plot leaf area index (LAI) to the whole slope average of Larix gmelinii var. principis- rupprechtii during different months along the horizontal distance of plots from slope top."

Table 2

Numerical relationship between the ratio of plot leaf area index (LAI) to the whole slope average (y) and the horizontal length (x) in different months"

月份
Month
拟合方程
Fitted equation
R2 p
5 y = -6 × 10-9x3 + 3 × 10-6x2 - 0.0005x + 1.0530 0.609 0.008
6 y = 3 × 10-10x3 - 4 × 10-6x2 + 0.0015x + 0.9213 0.432 0.071
7 y = 1 × 10-8x3 - 1 × 10-5x2 + 0.0027x + 0.8716 0.421 0.078
8 y = 1 × 10-8x3 - 1 × 10-5x2 + 0.0026x + 0.8722 0.401 0.094
9 y = -1 × 10-9x3 + 6 × 10-7x2 + 0.0001x + 0.9607 0.452 0.058
10 y = -1 × 10-8x3 + 7 × 10-6x2 + 0.0009x + 0.5828 0.800 < 0.001

Fig. 5

Variations of the moving average of canopy leaf area index (LAI) of Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii during different months along the horizontal distance from slope top."

Table 3

Numerical relationship between the moving average (y) of canopy leaf area index (LAI) of Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii and the horizontal length (x) in different months"

月份
Month
拟合方程
Fitted equation
R2 p
5 y = -1 × 10-9x3 + 4 × 10-8x2 - 5 × 10-5x + 2.9057 0.825 < 0.001
6 y = 1 × 10-9x3 - 5 × 10-6x2 + 0.0025x + 3.2363 0.872 < 0.001
7 y = 6 × 10-9x3 - 9 × 10-6x2 + 0.0034x + 3.3118 0.915 < 0.001
8 y = 1 × 10-8x3 - 1 × 10-5x2 + 0.0042x + 3.2982 0.932 < 0.001
9 y = 2 × 10-9x3 - 1 × 10-6x2 + 0.0005x + 2.7492 0.938 < 0.001
10 y = -7 × 10-9x3 + 5 × 10-6x2 - 9 × 10-5x + 0.6438 0.988 < 0.001

Table 4

Correlation of canopy leaf area index (LAI) of Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii with factors of vegetation, landform, exposure and microclimate in different months"

月份
Month
胸径
Diameter
at breast
height
树高
Tree
height
密度
Stand
density
海拔
Elevation
坡度
Slope
degree
气温
Air
temperature
辐射强度
Radiant intensity
风速
Wind
speed
土壤水分
Soil
moisture
容重
Bulk
density
持水能力
Water holding capacity
总孔隙度
Porosity
5 0.480 0.341 0.037 0.692** -0.365 0.692** 0.692** 0.692** 0.457 -0.133 0.344 0.323
6 0.234 0.296 0.109 0.366 -0.163 -0.366 0.366 0.366 0.530* -0.078 0.237 0.247
7 0.280 0.326 0.097 0.326 -0.177 -0.326 0.326 0.326 0.629** -0.177 0.259 0.295
8 0.299 0.379 0.048 0.284 -0.157 -0.284 0.284 0.284 0.527* -0.178 0.226 0.259
9 -0.325 0.069 0.356 -0.668** 0.622* 0.668** -0.668* -0.668* -0.093 0.378 -0.601* -0.611*
10 -0.495 0.009 0.290 -0.892** 0.641** 0.892** -0.892** -0.892** -0.644** 0.483 -0.682** -0.669**

Fig. 1

The relationship between the leaf area index (LAI) increment of Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii and soil moisture of 0-100 cm layer in June-August."

Table 1

The water holding capacity, total porosity and mean temperature in Sept. 2015 of the 0-100 cm soil layer of plot 1, plot 9 and plot 16"

样地
Plot
海拔
Elevation (m)
土壤温度
Soil temperature
(℃)
饱和持水量
Water holding
capacity (%)
总孔隙度
Porosity (%)
1 2 471.4 8.3 65.8 59.0
9 2 372.6 8.5 66.1 58.9
16 2 275.6 9.3 61.3 56.3

Fig. 2

Variations of monthly soil moisture in 0-100 cm soil layer during growing season along the horizontal distance of plots from slope top."

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