Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (6): 653-662.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0025

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Drivers of composition and density pattern of tree seedlings in a secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest, Jiaohe, Jilin, China

MENG Ling-Jun,YAO Jie,QIN Jiang-Huan,FAN Chun-Yu,ZHANG Chun-Yu,ZHAO Xiu-Hai()   

  1. Research Center of Forest Management Engineering of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2018-01-16 Revised:2018-06-09 Online:2018-06-20 Published:2018-06-20
  • Contact: Xiu-Hai ZHAO E-mail:zhaoxh@bjfu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the Key Project of National Key Research and Development Plan(2017YFC0504005);the Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China(31670643)

Abstract:

Aims Our aim is to explore the composition and temporal dynamics of tree seedlings and to further understand the impacts and relative importance of biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity on seedling density patterns in a secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest in Jiaohe, Jilin Province, North-eastern China.

Methods We established 209 seedling census stations in the mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest. Based on two seedling censuses conducted in 2016 and 2017, we analyzed species composition and quantitative dynamics of seedlings. Generalized mixed linear models were used to test the relative effects of biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity on seedling density patterns.

Important findings (1) A total of 4 245 seedlings were investigated in all seedling census stations of this plot, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families and 18 species. The number of new-born seedlings varied greatly among species and census years. Fraxinus mandschurica and Tilia amurensis seedlings occurred and died in large numbers. (2) At the community level, the sum of conspecific adult basal area, the soil total phosphorus and available potassium exhibited significant positive effects on seedling density. The habitat suitable for trees was also suitable for seedlings. (3) The factors influencing seedling density of Fraxinus mandschurica were consistent with those of seedling density at the community level. Pinus koraiensis had significant habitat preference, it had higher density in the habitat with lower moisture, soil total phosphorus, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus. Conspecific adult neighbor effects on annual seedling density was more significant than on perennial seedling density. This study suggests that dispersal limitation and habitat filtering together affect seedling density pattern, and the relative importance of biotic neighbors and habitat heterogeneity varies among seedling species and age classes.

Key words: secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest, generalized linear mixed-effect model, tree seedling density, biotic neighbor, habitat heterogeneity

Fig. 1

The sketch map of the census station."

Fig. 2

Quadrat layout at each of the census station."

Table 1

The loadings of the soil variables for each of the three PCA axes"

土壤变量 Soil variables PC1 PC2 PC3
全氮 Total nitrogen 0.320 -0.337 0.538
全磷 Total phosphorus 0.450 0.182 -0.218
全钾 Total potassium -0.371 -0.492 -
有机质 Organic matter 0.378 -0.523 0.233
有效氮 Available nitrogen 0.421 -0.319 -0.359
有效磷 Available phosphorus - -0.258 -0.688
有效钾 Available potassium 0.480 0.411 -
变异解释 Proportion of variance 34.224% 18.990% 16.428%

Table 2

Quantitative composition of seedling species"

树种 Species 幼苗数量
No. of
seedlings
新生幼苗数量(新生率)
No. of recruitment
(Recruitment rate (%))
死亡幼苗数量(死亡率)
No. of mortality
(Mortality rate (%))
幼苗密度
Seedling
density (Ind.·m-2)
分布的样方数
No. of stations
occupied
重要值
Important
value
2016 2017 2016 2017 2016-2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017
水曲柳 Fraxinus mandschurica 1 769 796 871 (49.2) 213 (26.8) 1 186 (67.0) 2.116 0.952 498 317 52.28 42.11
色木槭 Acer mono 199 177 7 (3.5) 16 (9.0) 38 (19.1) 0.238 0.212 143 124 9.59 12.45
紫椴 Tilia amurensis 306 124 274 (89.5) 89 (71.8) 271 (88.6) 0.366 0.148 169 81 12.58 8.38
东北枫 Acer mandshuricum 127 159 12 (9.4) 44 (27.7) 12 (9.4) 0.152 0.19 100 120 6.5 11.68
红松 Pinus koraiensis 192 121 156 (81.3) 35 (28.9) 106 (55.2) 0.230 0.145 94 60 7.38 7.08
簇毛枫 Acer barbinerve 101 107 17 (16.8) 14 (13.1) 8 (7.9) 0.121 0.128 34 31 3.22 4.99
胡桃楸 Juglans mandshurica 43 29 20 (46.5) 14 (48.3) 28 (65.1) 0.051 0.035 40 25 2.46 2.31
杉松 Abies holophylla 35 29 13 (37.1) 5 (17.2) 11 (31.4) 0.042 0.035 28 24 1.81 2.25
蒙古栎 Quercus mongolica 1 62 0 (0) 62 (100) 1 (100) 0.001 0.074 1 27 0.06 3.41
千金榆 Carpinus cordata 30 21 14 (46.7) 6 (28.6) 15 (50) 0.036 0.025 26 19 1.64 1.72
裂叶榆 Ulmus laciniata 24 21 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (12.5) 0.029 0.025 16 17 1.10 1.61
糠椴 Tilia mandshurica 10 6 4 (40.0) 1 (16.7) 5 (50) 0.012 0.007 8 5 0.52 0.47
春榆 Ulmus davidiana var. japonica 9 5 3 (33.3) 1 (20.0) 5 (55.6) 0.011 0.006 8 4 0.50 0.38
三花枫 Acer triflorum 2 4 1 (50) 2 (50) 0 0.002 0.005 2 4 0.12 0.35
黄檗 Phellodendron amurense 2 3 1 (50.0) 3 (100) 2 (100) 0.002 0.004 2 3 0.12 0.26
青楷枫 Acer tegmentosum 2 3 0 (0) 3 (100) 2 (100) 0.002 0.004 2 2 0.12 0.21
毛榛 Corylus mandshurica 0 4 0 4 (100) 0 0 0.005 0 2 0 0.24
水榆花楸 Sorbus alnifolia 0 1 0 1 (100) 0 0 0.001 0 1 0 0.09
共计 Total 2 852 1 672 1 393 (48.8) 513 (30.7) 1 693 (59.4) 3.411 2.001

Fig. 3

The frequency distributions of the species number in seedling stations."

Table 3

Parameters used in models of seedling density"

变量 Variables 数据 Data
最小值 Min. 最大值 Max. 平均值 Mean
生物邻体变量 Biotic neighbors variables
同种成体胸高断面积 Conspecific adult basal area (ConBa) 0 2.466 1 0.407 2
异种成体胸高断面积 Heterospecific adult basal area (HetBa) 1.233 8.151 3.56
生境变量 Habitat variables
林冠开阔度 Canopy openness 0.989 3.982 2.148
土壤含水量 Moisture (%) 13 76.4 26.74
土壤pH值 Soil pH value 3.96 5.44 4.603
第一主成分 The first principal component (PC1) -3.140 6 4.209 1 0.188 2
第二主成分 The second principal component (PC2) -6.833 9 3.225 3 0.312 3
第三主成分 The third principal component (PC3) -4.091 0 2.157 4 0.176 6

Table 4

Akaike’s information criteria (AIC) and ΔAIC values of the models for individual-level seedling density"

水平 Level 零模型Null 生物模型Biotic 非生物模型Habitat 全模型 Biotic + Habitat
AIC ΔAIC AIC ΔAIC AIC ΔAIC AIC ΔAIC
群落 Community 3 758.3 19.5 3 738.8 0.0 3 760.8 22.0 3 740.3 1.5
龄级 Age class
当年生 One year old 1 152.7 6.5 1 147.1 0.9 1 153.6 7.4 1 146.2 0.0
多年生 Over one year old 2 503.5 13.0 2 507.2 14.7 2 492.5 0.0 2 500.1 7.6
物种 Tree species
水曲柳 Fraxinus mandschurica 1 330.2 9.2 1 321.0 0.0 1 328.9 7.9 1 321.8 0.8
色木槭 Acer mono 425.6 1.5 424.1 0.0 433.5 9.4 431.5 7.4
紫椴 Tilia amurensis 533.6 0.0 539.6 6.0 543.0 9.4 542.0 8.4
东北枫 Acer mandshuricum 329.8 0.0 333.3 3.5 333.9 4.1 333.4 3.6
红松 Pinus koraiensis 337.9 10.1 340.3 12.5 327.8 0.0 328.8 1.0

Fig. 4

Estimates of the coefficients (± 2 × SE) of the best models for seedling density over two years at the community level. Solid symbols indicate parameters significantly different from zero (p < 0.05), and hollow symbols indicate no significant difference from zero (p > 0.05). See Table 3 for variable abbreviations."

Fig. 5

Estimates of the coefficients (± 2 × SE) of the best models for seedling density at different age classes. Solid symbols indicate parameters significantly different from zero (p < 0.05), and hollow symbols indicate no significant difference from zero (p > 0.05). See Table 3 for variable abbreviations."

Fig. 6

Estimates of the coefficients (± 2 × SE) of the best models for the seedling density of different species. Solid symbols indicate parameters significantly different from zero (p < 0.05), and hollow symbols indicate no significant difference from zero (p > 0.05). See Table 3 for variable abbreviations."

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