Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (12): 1145-1153.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0184

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Spatial distribution of male and female Populus cathayana populations and its drivers in Xiaowutai Mountains, Hebei, China

MENG Zhen-Si1,XIANG Wei2,SU Guo-Kui1,LI Da-Dong1,DONG Ting-Fa1,PENG Jin-You1,LI Xiao-Dong3,GONG Xiao-Ping3,LIANG Ning3,XU Xiao1,*()   

  1. 1 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, China
    2 College of Land and Resource, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, China
    3 Xiaowutai Mountains National Nature Reserve, Yuxian, Hebei 075700, China
  • Received:2018-07-31 Revised:2018-09-02 Online:2019-04-04 Published:2018-12-20
  • Contact: Xiao XU E-mail:xuxiao_cwnu@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31170389);Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31370596)

Abstract:

Aims Spatial segregations between male and female populations of dioecious plants has been increasingly reported in recent years. However, the drivers underlying these segregations have not been fully discussed. Here, we explored the factors driving the spatial segregation between male and female populations of Populus cathayanadistributed in Xiaowutai Mountains of Hebei Province, China.

Methods The male and female P. cathayana trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) larger than 9 cm (representing individuals with sexual maturity) were investigated and the soil physical and chemical properties of each individual were analyzed. The methods of average nearest neighbor index, kernel density estimation and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to analyze the aggregation degree, population density and distribution pattern of male and female P. cathayana populations and their relationships with distance from the river, altitude and soil properties.

Important findings Firstly, P. cathayanapopulation was distributed along the Jinhegou River in a long and narrow belt, with the largest number of individuals and the highest density in the middle altitude area. Secondly, both the number and density of female and male trees increased first and then decreased with the increase of altitude, whereas the change of average DBH was opposite. Thirdly, altitude had a significant effect on sex ratio. The sex ratio was female biased in the low altitude area (1 300-1 400 m), male biased in middle-low altitude areas (1 400-1 500 m), and close to 1:1 in other areas. Fourthly, with the increase of distance from the river, the number, density and average DBH of females or males gradually decreased. Moreover, the content of organic matter and total nitrogen in the dominant distribution area of female trees was significantly higher than that of males. Lastly, because the variation of altitude and distance from the river changed soil physical and chemical properties and growth environment of P. cathayana trees in some areas, the sex ratio was biased. These results indicated that the spatial distribution, dynamic variation and sex ratio of male and female P. cathayana populations were greatly affected by altitude, distance from the river and soil physical and chemical properties. Because of the differences in resource demand and environmental adaptability between male and female populations, the sex ratio will be biased in some area.

Key words: Populus cathayana, diameter at breast height, distance from river, sex ratio, soil physical and chemical properties

Table 1

The average nearest neighbor analysis on the spatial distribution of Populus cathayana in Xiaowutai Mountains"

性别
Sex
预期平均距离
Expected mean distance (m)
平均观测距离
Observed mean distance (m)
平均最近邻指数
Nearest neighbor ration R
Z得分
Score-Z
p
雄 Male 4.767 3.394 0.712 -31.045 < 0.001
雌 Female 4.900 3.362 0.686 -32.908 < 0.001
全部 Total 3.218 2.491 0.774 -36.105 < 0.001

Fig. 1

The kernel density distribution map of Populus cathayana populations in Xiaowutai Mountains."

Table 2

The number, density, average diameter at breast height (DBH) and sex ratio of female and male Populus cathayana trees at different altitudes in Xiaowutai Mountains (mean ± SE)"

海拔
Altitude
雄株 Male 雌株 Female 性比
Sex ratio
数量
Number
密度
Density (ind.·hm-2)
平均胸径
DBH (cm)
数量
Number
密度
Density (ind.·hm-2)
平均胸径
DBH (cm)
低海拔 Low altitude (1300-1400 m) 88 18.87 38.90 ± 1.23a 130 27.88 38.54 ± 1.16a 0.68
中低海拔 Middle-low altitude (1400-1500 m) 818 130.33 32.89 ± 0.42c 622 99.10 32.04 ± 0.43c 1.32
中海拔 Middle altitude (1500-1600 m) 1 462 144.83 34.17 ± 0.31bc 1 481 146.71 32.57 ± 0.29c 0.99
中高海拔 Middle-high altitude (1600-1700 m) 685 130.20 36.16 ± 0.46b 660 125.44 35.28 ± 0.42b 1.04
高海拔 High altitude (1700-1800 m) 121 61.71 38.91 ± 1.30a 112 57.12 38.44 ± 1.08a 1.08

Table 3

The number, density, average diameter at breast height (DBH) and sex ratio of female and male Populus cathayana trees at different distances from the Jinhegou River in Xiaowutai Mountains (mean ± SE)"

与河岸距离
Distance from river
雄株 Male 雌株 Female 性比
Sex ratio
数量
Number
密度
Density (ind.·hm-2)
平均胸径
DBH (cm)
数量
Number
密度
Density (ind.·hm-2)
平均胸径
DBH (cm)
0-10 m 1 546 197.28 35.93 ± 0.29a 1 339 170.86 34.51 ± 0.29ab 1.15
10-30 m 882 102.85 34.43 ± 0.43ab 982 114.51 33.90 ± 0.37bc 0.90
30-60 m 544 96.44 32.48 ± 0.54cd 480 85.10 31.81 ± 0.55de 1.13
> 60 m 202 75.92 30.65 ± 0.76ef 204 76.67 29.86 ± 0.83f 0.99

Table 4

The soil properties at different altitudes or distances from the Jinhegou River in Xiaowutai Mountains (mean ± SE)"

指标
Indices
含水量
Water content
(%)
pH 有机质
Organic matter
(%)
总N
Total N (g·kg-1)
总P
Total P
(g·kg-1)
总K
Total K
(g·kg-1)
有效N
Available N
(g·kg-1)
有效P
Available P
(mg·kg-1)
有效K
Available K
(g·kg-1)
海拔
Altitude
(m)
1 300-1 400 31.24 ± 0.27e 7.20 ± 0.01a 6.38 ± 0.05e 4.00 ± 0.06d 0.94 ± 0.01d 13.26 ± 0.04b 0.25 ± 0.01e 6.94 ± 0.07e 0.21 ± 0.01e
1 400-1 500 48.08 ± 0.42b 7.21 ± 0.01a 10.89 ± 0.11c 5.30 ± 0.05c 1.03 ± 0.01b 13.04 ± 0.01c 0.35 ± 0.01d 9.92 ± 0.12c 0.33 ± 0.01a
1 500-1 600 42.38 ± 0.15c 7.03 ± 0.01c 10.52 ± 0.03d 5.32 ± 0.02c 0.94 ± 0.01d 13.09 ± 0.01c 0.39 ± 0.01c 10.96 ± 0.04b 0.26 ± 0.01d
1 600-1 700 40.28 ± 0.23d 7.02 ± 0.01c 11.42 ± 0.07b 5.66 ± 0.04b 0.96 ± 0.01c 13.05 ± 0.01c 0.40 ± 0.01b 11.74 ± 0.06a 0.28 ± 0.01c
1 700-1 800 52.27 ± 0.49a 7.13 ± 0.01b 13.48 ± 0.21a 6.82 ± 0.11a 1.10 ± 0.01a 13.81 ± 0.03a 0.45 ± 0.01a 9.19 ± 0.11d 0.29 ± 0.01b
平均值 Mean 43.21 7.08 10.76 5.4 0.97 13.31 0.38 10.7 0.28
河距
Distance from river
(m)
0-10 44.38 ± 0.22a 7.10 ± 0.01a 10.91 ± 0.06a 5.49 ± 0.03a 0.98 ± 0.01a 13.02 ± 0.01d 0.37 ± 0.01c 10.44 ± 0.06c 0.28 ± 0.01a
10-30 42.69 ± 0.26b 7.07 ± 0.11b 10.79 ± 0.07a 5.42 ± 0.03a 0.97 ± 0.01b 13.08 ± 0.01c 0.38 ± 0.01bc 10.79 ± 0.07b 0.27 ± 0.01b
30-60 41.47 ± 0.27c 7.11 ± 0.01a 10.46 ± 0.08b 5.21 ± 0.04b 0.96 ± 0.01b 13.27 ± 0.01b 0.39 ± 0.01b 11.15 ± 0.09a 0.28 ± 0.01a
> 60 41.91 ± 0.27bc 6.91 ± 0.02c 10.39 ± 0.05b 5.24 ± 0.04b 0.92 ± 0.01c 13.32 ± 0.02a 0.40 ± 0.01a 11.02 ± 0.09ab 0.26 ± 0.01c

Table 5

The soil properties in dominant distribution area of female and male Populus cathayana trees in Xiaowutai Mountains (mean ± SE, n = 6)"

指标
Indices
含水量
Water content
(%)
pH 有机质
Organic matter
(%)
总N
Total N
(g·kg-1)
总P
Total P
(g·kg-1)
总K
Total K
(g·kg-1)
有效N
Available N
(g·kg-1)
有效P
Available P
(mg·kg-1)
有效K
Available K
(g·kg-1)
雌株 Female 40.64 ± 2.64 7.00 ± 0.09 11.23 ± 0.85 5.39 ± 0.25 0.95 ± 0.03 13.01 ± 0.14 0.39 ± 0.01 12.06 ± 1.12 0.23 ± 0.01
雄株 Male 39.78 ± 2.06 6.99 ± 0.10 8.54 ± 0.45 4.10 ± 0.34 0.90 ± 0.03 13.15 ± 0.17 0.34 ± 0.02 9.74 ± 0.66 0.24 ± 0.02
P值 Probability 0.699 0.818 0.004 0.015 0.31 0.699 0.18 0.093 1
显著性 Significance ns ns ** * ns ns ns ns ns
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