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An update of the vegetation classification in China
Yong-Chang SONG, En-Rong YAN, Kun SONG
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2017, 41 (2): 269-278.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0255
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The vegetation classification in China was updated by referring to recent advances for vegetation classification worldwide and on the basis of our former paper Recognition and Proposal on the Vegetation Classification System of China (hereafter, “Recognition and Proposal”). In this revision, the criteria for vegetation classification were discussed and unified, and a quantified standard for high, medium, and low level units in a new hierarchical classification scheme was supplemented. Compared with the old classification scheme in “Recognition and Proposal”, the units at the level of vegetation type were substantially changed. Finally, in order to improve mutual communication among international peers, a comparison was carried out between the new revised scheme and each of International Classification and Mapping of Vegetation of UNESCO, The National Vegetation Classification Standard of United States, and The Braun-Blanquet Classification Scheme.

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Suggestions for data analysis and use of statistics
HU Feng-Qin, LI Shuo, and MOU Pu
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2013, 37 (6): 583-588.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2013.00060
Abstract945)      PDF(pc) (502KB)(3164)       Save

We discuss standards for the data analysis portion of the materials and methods section of ecology theses. We also comment on statistical questions frequently encountered in ecological theses, including: more effective statistical approaches, correlated dependent variables, heteroscedasticity, statistical significance vs. biology/ecology significance, and pseudo-replication.

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Recognition and proposal on the vegetation classification system of China
SONG Yong-Chang
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2011, 35 (8): 882-892.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.00882
Abstract2733)      PDF(pc) (398KB)(2046)       Save

An encyclopedia of Chinese vegetation is going to be compiled as a series of books, and comments are sought to revise the “Vegetation Classification System of China” (VCSC). These require several key decisions. First, the principle of VCSC proposed by Vegetation of China (1980) that “the higher rank of classification unit would be based on the physiognomy of vegetation, while the middle and lower rank emphasized on species composition and community structure” should be maintained because it is corresponding with the current trends of international vegetation classifications. Second, VCSC should classify Chinese vegetation to be compatible with global vegetation classification, so that the terms and concepts will be widely accepted internationally. Third, “Association”, a fundamental classification unit described by the series of books of Chinese vegetation, should be defined and used consistently, so that misunderstandings between northern and southern associations can be avoided. Fourth, the hierarchy in the classification of vegetation generally should be rigid, but different ranks remain open and flexible, i.e., upper-level units can be supplemented to meet future needs. A draft of the VCSC (from class to vegetation type) is proposed in this paper.

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Spatial and temporal dynamics of Phytolacca americana seed rain under Robinia pseudoacacia forest in Lingshan Bay National Forest Park, Shandong, China
DI Shu-Qiang, LI Chuan-Rong, XU Jing-Wei, LIU Li-Chuan, ZHANG Dan, ZHOU Zhen
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (10): 1236-1242.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.10.013
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Aims Phytolacca americana is a serious invasive plant species, which has harmed biodiversity and arboreal regeneration in coastal protective forests in Shandong Province. Our objective was to reveal its mechanism of reproduction and dispersal in order to provide guidance for controlling its invasion. Methods To study the spatial and temporal pattern of seed rain of P. americana, we conducted field surveys under Robinia pseudoacacia forest in Lingshan Bay National Forest Park from September to December 2008. We established five transects at 15 m intervals from forest edge to forest interior and within each transect set up 30 samples (1 m × 1 m) to survey seed densities. We also chose eight mother plants of P. americana at 10 m intervals in each transect and placed seed traps (30 cm × 30 cm × 10 cm) at 11 sample points at every 30 cm surrounding them. We collected fallen seeds one or two days. One-way ANOVA was used to test the diversity. Important findings The quantities and densities of seed rain were 1 846–2 273 seeds and 621–1 382 seeds per square meter, respectively, and values decreased from forest edge to interior. In five transects, the average seed rain densities were 33.64%–60.80% of reproduction, and the total average seed rain density accounted for 49.52% of seed reproduction densities; the rest was removed by firewood collecting and seed predation by animals. Seed rain began in mid September and ended in late December, and it occurred on forest edges before forest interiors. There were two seed-rain peaks in late October and mid December, and maximum intensities were 32 and 59 seeds per square meter per day, respectively. The dispersal distance of seed rain decreased from forest edge to forest interior. The same pattern existed with increasing distance from mother plant. The maximal dispersal and weighted mean distances were 210–180 cm and 94.32–63.03 cm, respectively; the average weighted mean distance was 81.00 cm. Phytolacca americana seed rain had obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Findings were important to predict the invasive potential of P. americana and the trend in community structure.
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An intellectual enquiring about ecological restoration and recovery, their scientific implica-tion and approach
ZHANG Xin-Shi
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (1): 112-118.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.01.014
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Aims Ecological restoration is one of the most active and key activities in contemporary ecology. But, it has been translated in Chinese as “ecological recovery”. By means of checking its English meaning and evolved processes, it is suggested that, instead of “recovery”, change it in Chinese as “ecological reestablishment”. Be-cause ecological restoration must involve human intention or agency, it is fundamentally about assisted recovery that works to accelerate natural processes. But, in case where ecological processes have worked unassisted or something that can happen by nature itself without human agency, the term, “recovery” should be used. Important findings There are at least three time scales for natural recovery and ecological restoration. They are the geologic period scale (103, 106, 109 a), ecosystem regeneration and succession scale (10, 102, 103 a), and ecological restoration scale (1, 10, 102 a). The 1st and 2nd scale are time scales for natural recovery, they are 10-102-103 times longer than ecological restoration periods. Humans could not over-scaled depending on the ca-pacity of natural recovery. The incompatibility of natural recovery and restoration in time scales is the basic cause of why natural recovery cannot meet the ecological demands of human society. The author raises doubt to the statement of “put the natural recovery as the major objective”, and “transfer the major objective from the ecological restoration to natural recovery”. The author beliefs that to shift responsibility of restoration onto nature itself and recovery at long-last recovery is the logic of lazybones and unwilling to be responsible. That is violation of the acknowledged global environmental truth that “who destroys who should compensate; who pollutes who should eliminate; who enjoys, who should pay”. Besides recovery and restoration natural ecosystems, designed ecological solutions will go beyond restoring a past ecosystem, but creat a kind of coupled natural-artificial ecosystems that will be part of a future sustainable world.
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