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全球变化对食物网结构影响机制的研究进展
王晴晴, 高燕, 王嵘
植物生态学报    2021, 45 (10): 1064-1074.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2020.0061
摘要   (893 HTML31 PDF(pc) (1157KB)(736)  

食物网主要依靠基于不同营养级间物种互作形成的上行与下行调控维持其结构。全球变化能够改变种间关系, 威胁生物多样性的维持, 然而目前对全球变化改变食物网结构的机制仍处于探索阶段。近年来通过大时空格局与多营养级食物网研究, 发现全球变化的作用机制主要可归结为3种: 物候错配、关键种丧失与生物入侵。该文聚焦于这3种机制, 综述各种机制造成的食物网结构变化并探讨相关的进化与生态驱动因素。三种干扰机制均通过改变原有种间关系, 影响食物网调控, 改变食物网结构。不同的是, 物候错配造成的种间关系变化是由于不同物种的物候对全球变化产生非同步响应所致; 关键种丧失则使营养级间取食/捕食关系发生变化甚至缺失; 而入侵物种通过竞争排除同营养级物种改变种间关系。最后, 该文提出食物网结构变化的实质是物种是否能够适应快速变化的生态环境, 并据此展望未来研究方向。随着全球变化影响日益加剧, 急需继续深入探索导致全球变化下食物网结构改变的机制, 为制定合理的生物多样性保护与生态修复规划提供重要理论支撑。


专业术语 Terminology 解释 Explanation
上行调控
Bottom-up control
通过低营养级物种的防御限制高营养级物种的可利用食物资源进而调控食物网中各物种的种群大小(Terborgh et al., 2001)。
The defenses of species at low trophic levels limit the availability of food resource for species at high trophic levels, regulating the population size of each species in a food web (Terborgh et al., 2001).
下行调控
Top-down control
通过高营养级物种对低营养级物种的捕食/取食控制食物网中各物种种群大小(Terborgh et al., 2001)。
Species at high trophic levels control the population size of each species in a food web through preying on or feeding on the species at low trophic levels (Terborgh et al., 2001).
DNA条形码技术
DNA barcoding
DNA条形码是指基因组中能够代表该物种的且在种间有足够变异的、易扩增的DNA片段。通过获取一个或多个DNA条形码片段信息并与数据库中相关序列进行对比可快速、精确地完成物种鉴定(Hebert et al., 2003)。
The DNA fragments can represent the genomic characters of a species but with sufficient interspecific genetic variations and can be easily amplified. Rapid and accurate species identification can be achieved by using one to several DNA barcode fragments and comparing the obtained sequence information with related sequences in gene databases (Hebert et al., 2003).
进化军备竞赛
Evolutionary arm race
自然选择在不断提高捕食者发现和捕获猎物效率的同时也会不断改进猎物及时发现和逃避捕食者的能力, 这种相互适应的进化历程被称为进化军备竞赛(You et al., 2013)。
As a result of reciprocal selection, the efficiency of predators in finding and capturing preys and the ability of preys in detecting and eluding predators are simultaneously and continuously improved. This type of coadaptation in evolutionary history is named as the evolutionary arms race (You et al., 2013).
内禀优势
Inherent superiority
外来种在繁殖和扩散的过程中, 某些固有特征(如生理、生态、遗传和行为等)相对于本地种具有竞争优势, 从而导致其成功入侵(Zou et al., 2007)。
In reproduction and dispersal processes, many alien species have advantages compared with native species, due to their inherent characteristics in some aspects like physiology, ecology, genetics, and behavior, consequently resulting in successful invasions (Zou et al., 2007).
入侵崩溃
Invasional meltdown
两个或多个外来物种间产生互惠关系, 促进它们在新生境中的种群建立、繁殖与扩散, 最终导致这些物种共同入侵(Ricciardi & MacIsaac, 2000)。
The population establishment, reproduction and dispersal of two or more alien species in the novel environments were facilitated by their reciprocal mutualism(s), ultimately leading to the co-invasion of these species (Ricciardi & MacIsaac, 2000).
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表1 文中相关专业术语解释
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