植物生态学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (预发表): 0-0.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2020.0061

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全球变化对食物网结构影响机制的研究进展

王晴晴1,高燕1,王嵘2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学生态与环境科学学院
    2. 华东师范大学
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-11 修回日期:2020-08-31 出版日期:2020-12-20 发布日期:2020-11-30
  • 通讯作者: 王嵘
  • 基金资助:
    极小种群野生植物种质资源保护技术研究与示范

Impacts of global changes on food web structure

Qing-Qing WANG1,Yan GAO1, 2   

  1. 1. School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University
    2.
  • Received:2020-03-11 Revised:2020-08-31 Online:2020-12-20 Published:2020-11-30

摘要: 食物网主要依靠基于不同营养级间物种互作形成的上行与下行调控维持其结构。全球变化能够改变种间关系, 威胁生物多样性的维持, 然而目前对全球变化改变食物网结构的机制仍处于探索阶段。近年来通过大时空格局与多营养级食物网研究, 发现全球变化的作用机制主要可归结为三种: 物候错配、关键种丧失与生物入侵。该文聚焦于这三种机制, 综述各种机制造成食物网结构变化并探讨相关的进化与生态驱动因素。三种干扰机制均通过改变原有种间关系, 影响食物网调控, 改变食物网结。不同的是, 物候错配造成的种间关系变化是由于不同物种的物候对全球变化产生非同步响应所致; 关键种丧失则使营养级间取食/捕食关系发生变化甚至缺失; 而入侵物种通过竞争排除同营养级物种改变种间关系。最后, 本文提出食物网结构变化的实质是物种是否能够适应快速变化的生态环境, 并据此展望未来研究方向。随着全球变化影响日益加剧, 急需继续深入探索导致全球变化下食物网结构改变的机制, 为制定合理的生物多样性保护与生态修复规划提供重要理论支撑。

关键词: 全球变化, 种间关系, 食物网结构, 物候错配, 关键种丧失, 生物入侵

Abstract: The food web sustains its structure mainly by bottom-up and top-down controls, which are based on the interactions between species at different trophic levels. However, global changes can alter interspecific relationships and threaten the maintenance of biodiversity, but it is still unclear how global change alters the structure of the food webs. In recent years, based on numerous studies on food webs composed of multi-trophic levels at large spatiotemporal scales, researchers have found that global changes alter food web structure mainly through three mechanisms: phenological mismatching, loss of key species and biological invasion. Here we focused on these three mechanisms and reviewed how these mechanisms change food web structure change, with further discussion on the driving factors in ecology and evolution. All these three mechanisms can alter the interspecific interactions, resulting in distortion of the regulation of food webs. The major difference among these three mechanisms is how interspecific interactions are changed. Phenological mismatching occurs due to the asynchronous responses in the phenology of different species to global changes, while the loss of key species can change or even entirely destroys some critical feeding/predation relationships, and invasive species often simplify the food web structure by causing strong interspecific competition to exclude species at the same trophic level. Finally, we addressed that the changes in food web structure depends on the adaptation of species to the ongoing global changes and provided some insights into future researches. As the impacts of global changes are increasingly aggravating, it is necessary to further study the mechanisms how global changes influence food web structure, to reinforce the extant theoretical basis for improvements in the strategies of biodiversity conservation and ecological restoration.

Key words: global changes, interspecific interactions, food web structure, phenological mismatching, loss of keystone species, biological invasion