植物生态学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (9): 971-976.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0047

• 资料论文 • 上一篇    

中国百里香草原的分布、群落特征和分类

高趁光1,2,乔鲜果1,2,王孜1,2,陆帅志1,2,侯东杰1,2,刘长成1,赵利清3,郭柯1,2,*()   

  1. 1中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    2中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3内蒙古大学生命科学学院, 呼和浩特, 010021
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-26 修回日期:2018-05-29 出版日期:2018-09-20 发布日期:2018-06-01
  • 通讯作者: 郭柯 E-mail:guoke@ibcas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)((2014CB-138800));科技基础性工作专项((2015FY210200))

Distribution, community characteristics and classification of Thymus mongolicus steppe in China

GAO Chen-Guang1,2,QIAO Xian-Guo1,2,WANG Zi1,2,LU Shuai-Zhi1,2,HOU Dong-Jie1,2,LIU Chang-Cheng1,ZHAO Li-Qing3,GUO Ke1,2,*()   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3College of Life Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, China
  • Received:2018-02-26 Revised:2018-05-29 Online:2018-09-20 Published:2018-06-01
  • Contact: Ke GUO E-mail:guoke@ibcas.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China((2014CB-138800));the Key Program of National Fundamental Scientific Research((2015FY210200))

摘要:

百里香(Thymus mongolicus)草原是以唇形科小半灌木百里香为建群种的草原类型。该文以编写《中国植被志》为契机, 结合2015-2017年生长季野外调查数据和文献资料, 对中国百里香草原的分布、生态特征、群落特征和分类等进行了总结。结果表明: (1)百里香草原主要分布于辽河上游西拉木伦河流域的黄土丘陵、河北西北部坝上高原、阴山山脉两翼低山丘陵、鄂尔多斯高原东部和黄土高原北部, 常分布在水蚀风蚀强烈的黄土丘陵和砾石质化基质的坡地。(2)根据91个样地记录统计, 百里香草原组成物种较丰富, 有种子植物167种, 隶属于34科101属, 以菊科、豆科和禾本科为主; 其中有8种半灌木和小半灌木, 112种多年生杂类草; 水分生态类型以典型旱生植物(58种)和中旱生植物(45种)为主; 区系地理成分以东古北极成分(70种)和东亚成分(46种)为主。(3)根据生活型和优势度, 百里香草原可以划分为百里香、半灌木/小半灌木群丛组, 百里香群丛组, 百里香、丛生禾草群丛组, 百里香、根茎禾草群丛组, 百里香、薹草群丛组, 百里香、杂类草群丛组, 共计6个群丛组28个群丛。

关键词: 百里香, 小半灌木草原, 生活型, 区系地理成分, 群落分类

Abstract:
Thymus mongolicus steppe was a vegetation formation dominated by typical dwarf semi-shrub of Lamiaceae. Based on the previous literatures and primary plot data sampled during the growing seasons from 2015 to 2017, the distribution, ecological features, community characteristics and classification of Thymus mongolicus steppe were summarized. (1) Thymus mongolicus steppe is mainly distributed on the loess hills of Xar Moron River Watershed, Bashang region in the northwest of Hebei Province, the hills surrounding the Yinshan Mountains, the east part of Erdos Plateau and the northern Loess Plateau. This formation occurrs mainly on the stony slopes or loess hills with severe soil erosion. (2) In total, 167 seed plant species belonging to 101 genera of 34 families were recorded in the 91 sample sites, and families of Compositae, Leguminosae and Gramineae played crucial roles in the species composition. Eight of these families were semi-shrub and dwarf semi-shrub species, and 112 were perennial forb species. Typical xerophytes (58 species) and Meso-xerophytes (45 species) account for more than half part of all species. Eight geographic elements were involved. East Palaearctic (70 species) and East Asia (46 species) were the two major floristic elements. (3) Based on life form and dominance of species in the community, the formation was classified into 6 association groups (Thymus mongolicus, dwarf shrubs/dwarf semi-shurbs association group; Thymus mongolicus association group; Thymus mongolicus, bunchgrasses association group; Thymus mongolicus, rhizomatous grasses association group; Thymus mongolicus, Carex association group; Thymus mongolicus, forbs association group), consisting of 28 associations.

Key words: Thymus mongolicus, dwarf semi-shrubby steppe, life form, floristic geographic elements, community classification