Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (10): 990-999.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0101

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of exotic-native species relationship on naturalization and invasion of exotic plant species

ZHENG Shan-Shan,CHEN Xu-Bo,XU Wei-Nan,LUO Zheng-Rong(),XIA Geng-Shou   

  1. College of Ecology, Lishui University, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000, China
  • Received:2018-05-04 Online:2019-01-30 Published:2018-10-20
  • Contact: Zheng-Rong LUO
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China(LY14C030003);Supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China(LY18C020002)


Aims Darwin’s naturalization conundrum describes the paradox that the relationship of exotic species to native residents could either promote or hinder invasion success through opposing mechanisms: niche pre-adaptation or competitive interactions. Previous Darwin’s naturalization studies have showed invasion success could vary at stages, sites, and spatial and phylogenetic scales. Our objective was to assess the effects of exotic-native species relationship on invasion process of exotic plant species in China, where related research is still lacking.
Methods Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine relationship between exotic-native species relationship and performance of exotic species at different spatial scale (provincial, municipal and community) and invasion stages (naturalization, dispersal and invasion). At community scale, we measured environmental factors of communities we investigated to control the effect of habitat heterogeneity among them.
Important findings At the provincial and municipal scales, exotic species closely related to native flora were more likely to be naturalized and distributed, which is more consistent with the expectation of the pre-adaptation hypothesis. On the community scale, the exotic-native species relationship was not related to establishment and abundance of exotic species in the community. The results suggested that exotic species did not strongly compete with their close native relatives in communities, but were better adapted to areas where their close relatives had lived. Considering their high potential of naturalization and invasion, special attention should be paid to those exotic species that closely related to the native flora in the management of invasive species.

Key words: phylogenetic distance, scale, niche overlap, habitat filtering, stages of invasion

Fig. 1

The effects of the number of congeneric natives, phylogenetic distance to the nearest native species (DNNS) and mean phylogenetic distance (MDNS) to all native species in the same community (or flora) on naturalization, dispersal and invasion at different scales. A, Effects on the number of exotics naturalized in a province. B, Effects on the number of exotics naturalized in a province without double-zero records. C, Effects on probability of exotics successfully naturalized in Wenzhou. D, Effects on frequency of exotics naruralized in Wenzhou. E, Effects on exotics successfully invade in communities we examined. F, Effects on invasive species abundance in communities we examined. Solid line segments are 95% credible intervals of parameter distribution. Dash lines are zero lines. If a solid line intersects with a dash line, it means the corresponding coefficient was not significant. Period of naturalization, evaluated at the species level, ranges from 1 to 5, with 5 being more recent naturalization, so a negative coefficient indicates that species introduced more recently perform inferior."

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