Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2020, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (生态技术与方法专辑): 0-0.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0222

   

Techniques and methods of microbiomics and their applications

Gui-Feng GAO1,2, 1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    2. Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Received:2019-08-19 Revised:2020-01-29 Online:2020-02-24 Published:2020-03-20

Abstract: Microbiome is the combination of all microorganisms and their genetic information in a specific envi-ronment or ecosystem, which contains abundant microbial resources. A comprehensive and systematic analysis of the structure and function of microbiome will provide new ideas in solving the core issues in the fields of energy, ecological environment, industrial and agricultural production and human health. However, the study of microbiome is largely depending on the development of relevant technologies and methods. Prior to the advent of high-throughput sequencing technology, microbial research was based on techniques such as isolation, pure-culture and fingerprint. However, due to technical deficiencies, people's understanding of microorganisms is very limited. Since the 21st century, the revolutionary advances in the technology of high-throughput sequencing and mass spectrometry have greatly improved our understanding on the structure and ecological functions of environmental microbiome. However, the application of microbiomics technology in microbial research still faces many challenges. In addition, the descriptive studies focus on the structure and diversity of the microbiome have already matured, and the study of microbiomics is facing a critical transition period from quantity to quality and from structure to function. Hence, this paper will introduce the basic concepts of microbiomics and a brief history of its development firstly. Secondly, it introduces the related technologies and methods of microbiomics and its development process, and further expounds the applications and main problems of microbiomics technology and methods in ecological study. Finally, this paper expounds the frontier direction of the development of microbiomics technology and methods in the future from the technical, theoretical and application levels, and proposes the priority development areas of microbiome research in the future.

Key words: microbiomics, high-throughput sequencing, mass spectrometry, ecological study

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