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Table of Content
    Volume 39 Issue 12
    01 December 2015

    Scenery of a broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest and flux tower at Changbai Mountain. Using the ecosystem CO2 flux measurement with eddy covariance technique, Zhang et al. analyzed the seasonal and inter-annual variability of ecosystem light use efficiency (LUE), and examined the leading factors underlying the dynamics of LUE (Pages 1156–1165 of this issue) (Photographed by LIANG Xing-Yun).

    Orginal Article
    Classification of Pinus massoniana and secondary deciduous tree species in northern subtropical region based on high resolution and hyperspectral remotely sensed data
    SHEN Xin,CAO Lin,XU Ting,SHE Guang-Hui
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2015, 39 (12):  1125-1135.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0109
    Abstract ( 457 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (462KB) ( 1106 )   Save
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    Aims Using remote sensing data for tree species classification plays a key role in forestry resource monitoring, sustainable forest management and biodiversity research.Methods This study used integrated sensor LiCHy (LiDAR, CCD and Hyperspectral) to obtain both the high resolution imagery and the hyperspectral data at the same time for the natural secondary forest in south Jiangsu hilly region. The data were used to identify the crown and to classify tree species at multiple levels. Firstly, tree crowns were selected by segmenting high-resolution imagery at multiple scales based on edge detection; secondly, characteristic variables of hyperspectral images were extracted, then optimization variables were selected based on the theory of information entropy. Tree species and forest types were classified using either all characteristic variables or optimization variables only. Finally, tree species and forest types were reclassified along with the tree crowns information, and the accuracy of classification was discussed. Important findings Based on all available characteristic variables, the overall accuracy for four typical tree species classification was 64.6%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.493. The overall accuracy for forest types classification was 81.1%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.584. Based on optimization variables only, the overall accuracy for four typical tree species classification dropped to 62.9%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.459. The overall accuracy for forest types classification was 77.7%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.525. Obtaining both high resolution image and hyperspectral data at the same time by integrated sensor can increase overall accuracy in classifying forest types and tree species in northern subtropical forest.

    Species association and correlation between vertical layers in the Liquidambar formosana community in Tiantong region, Zhejiang Province
    ZHOU Liu-Li, ZHANG Qing-Qing, ZHAO Yan-Tao, XU Ming-Shan, CHENG Jun-Yang, ZHU Dan-Ni, SONG Yan-Jun, HUANG Hai-Xia, SHI Qing-Ru, YAN En-Rong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2015, 39 (12):  1136-1145.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0110
    Abstract ( 448 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (419KB) ( 958 )   Save
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    Aims Interspecific relationship is one of the most important properties in plant communities. Analyzing species association and correlation between vertical layers in plant communities is ecologically crucial for understanding community structure, dynamics and classification. The objective of this study was to test how plant species in contrasting vertical layers of plant communities associate and correlate. Methods The study sites are located in Tiantong region in Zhejiang Province. Community structure and species composition were measured in an early successional community of Liquidambar formosana. Interspecific relationships were examined between 3 tree species and 3 sub-tree species, between 3 tree species and 28 shrub species, and between 3 sub-tree species and 28 shrub species. Interspecific relationships were analyzed by using χ2-test for 2 × 2 contingency table, variance ratio (VR) test and spearman rank correlation test.Important findings With respect to tree and sub-tree layers, positive significant association was not observed for overall species. Species were independent with each other for most species pairs. Few species pairs showed significant association or correlation. Regarding tree and shrub layers, there were significant positive associations between overall species. Species between tree and shrub layers were more dependent on each other, with the most species showing significant association or correlation. Similarly, positive significant association existed for overall species between sub-tree and shrub layers, displaying a close interspecific relationship. These results suggest that the convergences of species behavior and habitat acclimatization, and complementary differences in habitat requirement over species between vertical layers might be the main driver affecting patterns of species association and correlation in the early successional community.

    Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry across components of forest ecosystem in Shaanxi Province
    CUI Gao-Yang,CAO Yang,CHEN Yun-Ming
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2015, 39 (12):  1146-1155.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0111
    Abstract ( 522 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (420KB) ( 985 )   Save
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    Aims Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry between vegetation, litter, and soil were important for understanding biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but remain poorly understood. Here, our aims were to study characteristics of N and P stoichiometry for the plant, litter, and soil and the interactions between its components across forest ecosystems in Shaanxi Province.Methods A total of 121 sampling sites, covering the most main forest types in Shaanxi, were established across the whole province in 2012. And N and P concentration of vegetation (tree and understory), litter and soil layers were measured for each site.Important findings 1) There were significant differences in the N and P stoichiometry among the forest ecosystem components (p < 0.05). N and P contents were higher in understory and litter layer, and lower in tree and soil. Whereas the N:P was slightly different, highest in litter and lowest in the soil layer, with little differences among remaining components. The contents of N, P and N:P ranged from 0.72 to11.99 mg·g-1, 0.47 to 1.07 mg·g-1, and 1.86 to 14.84, respectively. Within top 1 m soil layer N content and N:P decreased with soil depth (p < 0.05), however the P content did not exhibit significant changes. 2) N and P contents, and N:P of each component were higher in broadleaf forest than in coniferous forest, although the difference is not significant. 3) N was positively correlated with P content except for soil and N:P was negatively correlated with P content, but positively correlated with N content within each component. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation for N and P stoichiometric characteristics between litter layer and tree, herb, soil layer. 4) Although spatial pattern of N and P contents, and N:P differed in relation to longitude, latitude, and elevation for forest ecosystem components, a stable distribution was exhibited in general.

    Dynamics and regulations of ecosystem light use efficiency in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest, Changbai Mountain
    ZHANG Lei-Ming,CAO Pei-Yu,ZHU Ya-Ping,LI Qing-Kang,ZHANG Jun-Hui,WANG Xiao-Ling,DAI Guan-Hua,LI Jin-Gong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2015, 39 (12):  1156-1165.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0112
    Abstract ( 482 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (887KB) ( 885 )   Save
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    Aims Ecosystem light use efficiency (LUE) reflects the ability of CO2 uptake and light utilization via photosynthesis, which is a key parameter in ecosystem models to evaluate ecosystem productivity. The objectives of this study were to: (1) compare the differences of LUE derived from different methods; (2) elucidate the seasonal dynamics of LUE and its regulatory factors; and (3) evaluate the maximum LUE (LUEmax) and its variability based on eddy-covariance (EC) flux.Methods Using the flux data from an EC tower during 2003-2005 at a broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest, Changbai Mountain, two types of LUE indicators were generated from: 1) the apparent quantum yield (ε) estimated with rectangular hyperbolic curve, and 2) the ecological light use efficiency (LUEeco) calculated as the ratio between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and photosynthetically-active radiation (Q).Important findings The seasonal variation of ε and LUEeco appeared a unimodal pattern within a year, with the variations significantly dominated by soil surface temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A positive correlation between GEP and LUE was found for both ε and LUEeco, with the effect of Q on LUE relatively weak. The increase in diffusion radiation appeared favorable for enhanced LUE. Generally, there was a significant positive relationship between ε and LUEeco, while ε was higher than LUEeco, especially during the mid-season. The annual maximum value of ε and LUEeco was (0.087 ± 0.003) and (0.040 ± 0.002) μmol CO2·μmol photon-1 over the three years, respectively. The interannual variability of LUEmax for ε and LUEeco was 4.17% and 4.25%, respectively, with a maximum difference of >8%, likely resulted from considerable uncertainty in model simulations. Our results indicated that the inversion and optimization of maximum LUE should be taken seriously in the application of LUE models.

    Short-term nitrogen fertilization decreased root and microbial respiration in a young Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation
    WANG Qing-Kui,LI Yan-Peng,ZHANG Fang-Yue,HE Tong-Xin
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2015, 39 (12):  1166-1175.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0113
    Abstract ( 407 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (598KB) ( 800 )   Save
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    Aims As the primary pathway for CO2 emission from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere, soil respiration is estimated to be 80 Pg C·a-1 to 100 Pg C·a-1, equivalent to 10 fold of fossil fuel emissions. As an important management practice in plantation forests, fertilization does not only increase primary production but also affects soil respiration. To investigate how nitrogen (N) fertilization affects total soil, root and microbial respiration, a N fertilization experiment was conducted in a five-year-old Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Huitong, Hunan Province, located in the subtropical region. MethodsOne year after fertilization, soil respiration was monitored monthly by LI-8100 from July 2013 to June 2014. Soil temperature and water content (0-5 cm soil depth) were also measured simultaneously. Available soil nutrients, fine root biomass and microbial communities were analyzed in June 2013. Important findings Total soil, root and microbial respiration rates were 22.7%, 19.6%, and 23.5% lower in the fertilized plots than in the unfertilized plots, respectively. The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil respiration ranged from 1.81 to 2.04, and the Q10 value of microbial respiration decreased from 2.04 in the unfertilized plots to 1.84 in the fertilized plots. However, neither the Q10 value nor the patterns of total soil respiration were affected by N fertilization. In the two-factor model, soil temperature and moisture accounted for 69.9%-79.7% of the seasonal variations in soil respiration. These results suggest that N fertilization reduces the response of soil organic carbon decomposition to temperature change and may contribute to the increase of soil carbon storage under global warming in subtropical plantations.

    Sap flow characteristics and its responses to precipitation in Robinia pseudoacacia and Platycladus orientalis plantations
    WU Xu,CHEN Yun-Ming,TANG Ya-Kun
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2015, 39 (12):  1176-1187.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0114
    Abstract ( 390 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (728KB) ( 802 )   Save
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    Aim In the loess hilly region, drought stress frequently occurs during the late spring and early summer as a result of insufficient water supply and asynchronous changes between temperature and precipitation. Our objective was to quantify the characteristics of water-consumption through transpirations and their responses to precipitation in the dominant plantations in this region. Methods Thermal dissipation probe (TDP) was used to measure the sap flow density (Fd) of Robinia pseudoacacia and Platycladus orientalis from April through October in 2009 in Ansai National Ecological Experimental Station. Environmental variables, including meteorological factors and soil water content, were simultaneously measured. Important findings The diurnal variation of Fd exhibited a single-peak curve during the growing season of R. pseudoacacia and P. orientalis. The maximum Fd was three times greater in R. pseudoacacia (0.12068 m3·m-2·h-1) than that in P. orientalis (0.03737 m3·m-2·h-1). Except in the rapid-growth season (July to August), the Fd of these two species during the post-precipitation period were significantly higher than that during the pre-precipitation period. The Fd of P. orientalis and R. pseudoacacia was well fitted with transpiration (VT), an integrated index calculated from both vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and solar radiation (Rs), using an exponential saturation function. Generally, Fd increased in response to rising VT, while these values tended to be stable when VT reached about 50 kPa (W·m-2)1/2. Furthermore, R. pseudoacacia showed more sensitive to precipitation (p < 0.001) than P. orientalis, according to different hydraulic conductance model coefficients (fitting parameter b) between pre- and post-precipitation periods. Therefore, R. pseudoacacia could be considered as a precipitation-sensitive species, while P. orientalisasa precipitation-insensitive species. Through analyzing the different responses of plantation species to precipitation in the loess hilly region, this study provides a scientific basis for the local plantation management from the aspect of tree water use during ecological restoration.

    Kin recognition in Setaria italica under the condition of root segregation
    CHEN Qing-Qing,LI De-Zhi
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2015, 39 (12):  1188-1197.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0115
    Abstract ( 342 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (446KB) ( 633 )   Save
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    Aims Kin recognition may play an important part in the performance and productivity of crop plants. However, so far, little is known about whether crop plants can recognize their kin neighbors. The aim of this study was to explore kin recognition in Setaria italica, and its responses to changes in environmental and biological conditions.Methods A field experiment was conducted in the suburb of Shanghai. Setaria italica grew with different neighbors (kin, non-kin and strangers), under the condition of root segregation and different plant densities (high and low) and soil nutrient levels (high and low), respectively. We investigated how neighbor identity and its interactions with plant density and soil nutrient level affected the morphology and biomass allocation of S. italica.Important findings Under the condition of root segregation, 1) Leaf biomass allocation and stem diameter of plants in the kin groups significantly decreased and increased, respectively, suggesting that plants of S. italica in the kin groups reduced inter-individual competition, and adapted to the local windy climate. 2) Compared with the non-kin groups, plants in the stranger groups significantly increased the biomass allocation to seeds, while plant height decreased significantly, suggesting that the plants of S. italica in the stranger groups may reduce the growth of their neighbors due to asymmetric competition (S. italica significantly increased height compared with the neighboring plants, Panicum miliaceum). Therefore, the S. italic plants in the stranger groups allocated more biomass to reproduction and increased fitness than those in non-kin groups. 3) Under the condition of high plant density, no significant differences were found in stem biomass and leaf biomass allocation of plants among different neighbor identity treatments. While under the condition of low plant density, compared with the non-kin groups, biomass allocation to stem and leaf in the kin groups significantly increased and decreased, respectively. As the plant density decreased, plants in the kin groups decreased leaf biomass allocation significantly, while plants in the non-kin and stranger groups did not show such a response. 4) Under the condition of low soil nutrient level, no significant difference was found in leaf biomass allocation between the kin and non-kin groups, while the ear length of plants in the kin groups decreased significantly. Under the condition of high soil nutrient level, the biomass allocated to leaves in the kin groups decreased significantly, while ear length increased significantly compared with the non-kin groups. Therefore, under the condition of root segregation, plants of S. italica showed the ability to recognize their kin neighbors, and the aboveground competitive cues may play important roles in the course of kin recognition in S. italica. Lower plant density and higher soil nutrient level may facilitate the ability of kin recognition in S. italica.

    Interactive effects of phenolic acid and nitrogen on morphological traits of poplar (Populus × euramericana ‘Neva’) fine roots
    ZHU Wan-Rui,WANG Qi-Tong,LIU Meng-Ling,WANG Hua-Tian,WANG Yan-Ping,ZHANG Guang-Can,LI Chuan-Rong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2015, 39 (12):  1198-1208.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0116
    Abstract ( 437 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (657KB) ( 976 )   Save
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    Aims The relationship between rhizosphere process and fine root growth is very close but still obscure. In poplar plantation, phenolic acid rhizodeposition and soil nutrient availability were considered as two dominant factors of forest productivity decline. It is very hard to separate them in the field and they might show an interactive effect on fine root growth. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of phenolic acids and nitrogen on branch orders of poplar fine roots and to give a deeper insight into how the ecological process on root-soil interface affected fine root growth as well as plantation productivity. Methods The cuttings of health annual poplar seedlings (I-107, Populus × euramericana ‘Neva’) serve as experiment materials, and were cultivated under nine conditions, including three concentration of phenolic acids at 0X, 0.5X, 1.0X (here, X represented the contents of phenolic acids in the soil of poplar plantation) and three concentration of nitrogen at 0 mmol·L-1, 10 mmol·L-1, 20 mmol·L-1, based on Hoagland solution. The roots were all separated from poplar seedlings after 35 days, and 30 percent of total fine roots of every treatment were taken as fine root samples. These fine roots were grouped according to 1 to 5 branch orders, and then the morphological traits of each group of fine roots were scanned via root analyzer system (WinRHIZO, Regent Instruments Company, Quebec, Canada) including total length, surface area, volume and average diameter. Meanwhile, the dry mass of fine root samples of every order was measured to calculate specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD). All data were analyzed via SPSS 17.0 software, and interactive effect of phenolic acids and nitrogen on roots was analyzed through univariate process module. Principal component analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) were conducted via Canoco 4.5 software. Important findings Under the conditions without phenolic acids application, the fine roots growth was significantly inhibited in deficiency and higher nitrogen treatments, especially for 1-3 order roots. Only specific root length appeared decreased with nitrogen level, and other traits of fine roots did not demonstrate linear relationship with nitrogen concentrations. Compared to 0.5X phenolic acids treatment, 1.0X phenolic acids significantly promoted the diameter and volume of 1-2 order roots (p < 0.05). Both phenolic acids and nitrogen demonstrated influence on poplar fine root traits. However, the diameter and volume of 1-2 order roots were significantly affected by phenolic acids, while the total length and surface area of 4-5 order roots was affected by nitrogen. Two way ANOVA showed that phenolic acids and nitrogen made a synergistic or antagonistic effect on morphological building of fine roots. Furthermore, PCA and RDA indicated that the interactive effects of phenolic acids and nitrogen led to significant differences among 1-3 order, 4th order and 5th order of poplar fine roots. The PC1 explained about 60.9 percent of root morphological variance, which was related to foraging traits of roots. The PC2 explained 25.3 percent of variance, which was related to root building properties. The response of poplar roots to phenolic acids and nitrogen was closely related to root order, and nitrogen played more influence on poplar roots than phenolic acids. Thus, phenolic acids and nitrogen level would affect many properties of root morphology and foraging in rhizosphere soil of poplar plantation. But nitrogen availability would serve as a dominant factor influencing root growth, and soil nutrient management should be critical to productivity maintenance of poplar plantation.

    Exogenous polyamines alleviating salt stress on peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown in pots
    MENG De-Yun,HOU Lin-Lin,YANG Sha,MENG Jing-Jing,GUO Feng,LI Xin-Guo,WAN Shu-Bo
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2015, 39 (12):  1209-1215.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0117
    Abstract ( 286 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (306KB) ( 848 )   Save
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    Aims Soil salinity is a major limiting factor for plant establishment, development and productivity. In recent years, the contradiction between oil crops and food crops for land is increasingly prominent. In order not to take up the land for food, peanut planting on saline-alkali land could be a promising option. However, peanuts have been rarely grown in saline-alkali land, which may be due to the reduction of peanut yield caused by salt stress. Therefore, research of peanut salt resistance has important practical significance.Methods In order to investigate the effects of exogenous polyamines on peanut (Arachis hypogaea) grown in pots under salt stress, ‘Huayu 22’, one of the peanut cultivars, was used as materials by being foliar-sprayed with 1 mmol·L-1 putrescine (Put), 1 mmol·L-1 spermidine (Spd) and 1 mmol·L-1 spermine (Spm) to elucidate the role of exogenous polyamines on peanuts under 150 mmol·L-1NaCl. Important findingsResults showed that growth, yield, chlorophyll contents and antioxidant enzyme activities of peanut seedling decreased, however, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative electrolytic leakage increased under salt stress. Meanwhile, exogenous polyamines significantly improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and reduced the relative electrolytic leakage and MDA content in peanut leaves under salt stress and thus alleviating the oxidative damage of salt stress on plasma membrane. It is obvious that exogenous polyamines could improve chlorophyll contents, plant height, number of branch and the amount of dry matter accumulation, even pod yield under salt stress. Among these three polyamines, the effects of exogenous Spm on alleviating salt stress were most effective These results showed that exogenous polyamines, especially Spm, were favorable for the seedlings to increase reactive oxygen metabolism and photosynthesis, which improved peanut growth and reduced the inhibitory effects of salt stress on peanuts.

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