植物生态学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (7): 716-728.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0364

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

广西弄岗喀斯特季节性雨林藤本种子植物多样性及繁殖习性

蒋裕良, 李先琨*(), 郭屹立, 丁涛, 王斌, 向悟生*()   

  1. 广西喀斯特植物保育与恢复生态学重点实验室, 广西壮族自治区中国科学研究院广西植物研究所, 广西桂林 541006; 广西友谊关森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 广西凭祥 532600
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-29 接受日期:2017-04-05 出版日期:2017-07-10 发布日期:2017-08-21
  • 通讯作者: 李先琨,向悟生 E-mail:xiankunli@163.com;xwusheng@qq.com
  • 作者简介:

    * 共同通信作者Co-author for correspondence (E-mail:xiankunli@163.com; xwusheng@qq.com)

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY210200-14)、国家自然科学基金(NSFC31660130和31760131)、广西自然科学基金(2014GXNFSBA118081)和广西重点研发计划项目(桂科AB16380256)

Diversity of climbing seed plants and their reproductive habit in a karst seasonal rain forest in Nonggang, Guangxi, China

Yu-Liang JIANG, Xian-Kun LI*(), Yi-Li GUO, Tao DING, Bin WANG, Wu-Sheng XIANG*()   

  1. Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006, China; and Guangxi Youyiguan National Forest Ecosystem Research Station, Pingxiang, Guangxi 532600, China
  • Received:2016-11-29 Accepted:2017-04-05 Online:2017-07-10 Published:2017-08-21
  • Contact: Xian-Kun LI,Wu-Sheng XIANG E-mail:xiankunli@163.com;xwusheng@qq.com
  • About author:

    KANG Jing-yao(1991-), E-mail: kangjingyao_nj@163.com

摘要:

藤本植物是森林生物多样性的重要组成部分, 但在生物多样性丰富的喀斯特森林中, 藤本植物的组成和繁殖物候等特征鲜为人知。为此, 作者通过长期的调查监测, 对弄岗喀斯特季节性雨林藤本种子植物的种类组成、物种分布、开花和结实时间以及种实类型进行了整理和分析。结果表明: 该区藤本种子植物种类丰富, 共有333种, 隶属56科145属, 其中藤状灌木119种, 草质藤本88种, 木质藤本126种。不同生活型的藤本在不同地貌部位的种数分布有所差异, 草质藤本较多分布在洼地, 藤状灌木和木质藤本较多分布在坡地。藤本种子植物的开花结实表现出一定的季节性, 开花高峰期在4-9月, 结实高峰期在7-12月, 其中藤状灌木的季节性相对较弱。藤本种子植物的开花比率与降水量和气温呈极显著的正相关关系, 每年雨季即为藤本种子植物的开花高峰期。结实高峰期比开花高峰期滞后约3个月, 出现在雨季末期或雨季结束后。在木质藤本中, 翅果比率与风速极显著正相关, 与降水量和气温极显著负相关, 说明了翅果型木质藤本趋于在高风速的干旱季节结实。总之, 弄岗喀斯特季节性雨林藤本种子植物的多样性和繁殖特征与生境资源的时空变异相关联。

关键词: 喀斯特, 季节性雨林, 种子植物, 藤本植物, 生活型, 开花, 结实, 生境资源

Abstract:

Aims Diversity of climbing seed plants and their reproductive habits and characteristics are central for the understanding of community structure and dynamics of forests and hence are important for forest protection. However, little is known about the climbing seed plants in northern tropical karst seasonal rain forests. Here, using the data of the species diversity and reproductive habits of climbing seed plants in Nonggang, Guangxi, China, we aim to 1) explore the species diversity and distribution of climbing seed plants in northern tropical karst seasonal rain forests, 2) study the flowering and fruiting phenology and 3) the associations of reproductive characteristics to the environment. Methods Species composition, preferred habitat, flowering time, fruiting time and fruit types of climbing seed plants were surveyed. The seasonality of flowering and fruiting were analyzed by concentration ratio and circular distribution. Climbing seed plants were divided into three groups according to their growth forms and places in spatial forest structure: bush ropes, herbaceous vines and lianas. Monthly flowering ratios, fruiting ratios, fruit types and their ratios in different groups were determined. These relationships of flowering ratio, fruiting ratio, fruit type and its ratio to meteorological factors were investigated using Pearson correlation analysis. Important findings There were a total of 333 species of climbing seed plants in Nonggang karst seasonal rain forest, belonging to 145 genera and 56 families. Bush ropes, herbaceous vines and lianas contained 119, 88 and 126 species, respectively. At species level, herbaceous vines were more abundance in valleys, while bush ropes and lianas were more abundance on slopes. Flowering and fruiting of climbing seed plants occurred seasonally, with flowering peaking in April to September, while fruiting peaking in July to December. The seasonality of flowering and fruiting in bush ropes was weaker than in herbaceous vines and lianas. Flowering ratio was significantly positively correlated with rainfall and air temperature, which suggest that flowering peaks in monsoon season. Peak time for fruiting was about three months later than the peak time of flowering, around the end of monsoon season. The ratio of samara species to all fruiting species in lianas was significantly positively correlated with wind speed, but negatively correlated with rainfall and air temperature. It showed that samara in lianas tended to occur in dry season with high wind speed. In conclusion, species diversity and the seasonal features of reproduction of climbing seed plants in Nonggang karst seasonal rain forest were closely related to the spatial and temporal variations of habitat resources.

Key words: karst, seasonal rain forest, seed plant, climbing plant, growth form, flowering, fruiting, habitat resource

图1

弄岗北热带喀斯特区域月平均降水量、风速、气温的变化(改自王斌等, 2014)。"

表1

弄岗喀斯特季节性雨林藤本种子植物的多样性组成及其占本地区种子植物的比例"

类群
Type
藤本种子植物
Climbing seed plants
种子植物
Seed plants
藤本种子植物占种子植物的比例
Proportions of climbing seed plants in seed plants (%)
科 Family 属 Genus 种 Species 科 Family 属 Genus 种 Species 科 Family 属 Genus 种 Species
裸子植物 Gymnosperm 1 1 3 4 5 10 25.0 20.0 30.0
被子植物
Angiosperm
单子叶植物 Monocotyledon 6 10 31 25 143 255 24.0 7.0 12.2
双子叶植物 Dicotyledon 49 134 299 126 611 1 337 38.9 21.9 22.4
合计 Total 56 145 333 155 759 1 602 36.1 19.1 20.8

表2

弄岗喀斯特季节性雨林藤本种子植物科的组成及分布区类型"

科名
Family
属数
Genus No.
B种数
Species No. of B
H种数
Species No. of H
L种数
Species No. of L
总种数
Total species No.
分布区类型
Areal type
萝藦科 Asclepiadaceae 13 12 5 9 26 2
蝶形花科 Papilionaceae 13 8 6 8 22 1
葫芦科 Cucurbitaceae 13 0 20 2 22 2
葡萄科 Vitaceae 5 0 5 17 22 2
防己科 Menispermaceae 10 0 12 7 19 2
木犀科 Oleaceae 1 13 0 5 18 1
夹竹桃科 Apocynaceae 10 6 0 9 15 2
茜草科 Rubiaceae 4 5 2 5 12 1
苏木科 Caesalpiniaceae 3 0 0 12 12 2 (2-2)
鼠李科 Rhamnaceae 5 11 0 0 11 1
毛茛科 Ranunculaceae 2 0 1 10 11 1
蔷薇科 Rosaceae 2 10 0 0 10 1
旋花科 Convolvulaceae 6 2 5 2 9 1
番荔枝科 Annonaceae 4 8 0 1 9 2
菝葜科 Smilacaceae 2 8 1 0 9 2
薯蓣科 Dioscoreaceae 1 0 9 0 9 2
天南星科 Araceae 4 0 8 0 8 2
桑科 Moraceae 3 6 0 1 7 1
芸香科 Rutaceae 1 2 0 4 6 2
白花菜科 Capparidaceae 1 5 0 0 5 2
马兜铃科 Aristolochiaceae 1 0 2 3 5 2
卫矛科 Celastraceae 2 4 0 0 4 2
西番莲科 Passifloraceae 2 0 4 0 4 2
忍冬科 Caprifoliaceae 1 0 0 4 4 8
翅子藤科 Hippocrateaceae 2 0 0 3 3 3
金虎尾科 Malpighiaceae 2 1 0 2 3 2
菊科 Compositae 1 3 0 0 3 1
买麻藤科 Gnetaceae 1 0 0 3 3 2 (2-2)
五味子科 Schisandraceae 1 0 0 3 3 9
紫金牛科 Myrsinaceae 1 3 0 0 3 2
棕榈科 Arecaceae 1 0 0 3 3 2
使君子科 Combretaceae 2 1 0 1 2 2
远志科 Polygalaceae 2 2 0 0 2 1
胡椒科 Piperaceae 1 0 1 1 2 2
胡颓子科 Elaeagnaceae 1 2 0 0 2 8 (8-4)
桔梗科 Campanulaceae 1 0 2 0 2 1
猕猴桃科 Actinidiaceae 1 0 0 2 2 14
青藤科 Illigeraceae 1 0 0 2 2 2
清风藤科 Sabiaceae 1 0 0 2 2 7
百部科 Stemonaceae 1 0 1 0 1 5
百合科 Liliaceae 1 0 1 0 1 8
大戟科 Euphorbiaceae 1 1 0 0 1 2
大麻科 Cannabaceae 1 0 1 0 1 8
大血藤科 Sargentodoxaceae 1 0 0 1 1 7 (7-4)
含羞草科 Mimosaceae 1 1 0 0 1 2
蓼科 Polygonaceae 1 0 1 0 1 1
落葵科 Basellaceae 1 0 1 0 1 2
马鞭草科 Verbenaceae 1 1 0 0 1 3
牛栓藤科 Connaraceae 1 0 0 1 1 2
漆树科 Anacardiaceae 1 0 0 1 1 2
紫茉莉科 Nyctaginaceae 1 1 0 0 1 3
山柚子科 Opiliaceae 1 1 0 0 1 2
梧桐科 Sterculiaceae 1 0 0 1 1 2
五桠果科 Dilleniaceae 1 0 0 1 1 2 (2-1)
斜翼科 Plagiopteraceae 1 1 0 0 1 7 (7-3)
玄参科 Scrophulariaceae 1 1 0 0 1 1
总计 Total 145 119 88 126 333

图2

不同类群藤本种子植物在不同地貌部位的种数分布示意图。B、H和L见表2。"

表3

不同类群藤本种子植物开花结实的季节性及高峰时间"

类群
Group
开花 Flowering 结实 Fruiting
集中度
Concentration
ratio (M)
高峰日
Peak day
(month-day)
高峰期
Peak season
(month-day-month-day)
z 集中度
Concentration
ratio (M)
高峰日
Peak day
(month-day)
高峰期
Peak season
(month-day-month-day)
z
B 0.29 6-13 3-15-9-14 31.18 0.23 9-20 6-16-12-30 22.79
H 0.45 7-5 5-24-9-18 68.87 0.43 9-28 7-18-12-14 64.78
L 0.46 6-17 4-7-8-30 69.19 0.44 9-25 7-16-12-11 79.20
B & H & L 0.39 6-21 4-4-9-10 172.62 0.36 9-25 7-7-12-19 169.86

图3

弄岗喀斯特季节性雨林各月份藤本种子植物开花和结实比率。B、H和L见表2。"

图4

弄岗喀斯特季节性雨林各月份不同类群藤本种子植物的种实构成比率。B、H和L见表2。"

图5

弄岗喀斯特季节性雨林各月份不同类群藤本种子植物肉果与干果的丰富度。B、H和L见表2。"

表4

不同类群藤本种子植物开花结实比率及木质藤本的翅果比率与气象因子的相关系数"

气象因子
Meteorological factor
开花 Flowering 结实 Fruiting
B H L B H L
气温 Air temperature 0.833** 0.963** 0.854** 0.380 0.269 0.296 (-0.747**)
降水量 Precipitation 0.838** 0.960** 0.880** 0.189 0.042 0.103 (-0.715**)
风速 Wind speed -0.142 -0.426 -0.217 -0.906** -0.835** -0.860** (0.876**)
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