植物生态学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (5): 475-493.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0163

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

陆地生态系统氮沉降的生态效应: 研究进展与展望

付伟1,2, 武慧1,2, 赵爱花1,2, 郝志鹏1, 陈保冬1,2,*()   

  1. 1中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
    2中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-27 接受日期:2020-03-14 出版日期:2020-05-20 发布日期:2020-06-23
  • 通讯作者: ORCID: 陈保冬: 0000-0002-1790-7800
  • 作者简介:ORCID: 付伟: 0000-0002-5377-307X
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41877050);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0500702)

Ecological impacts of nitrogen deposition on terrestrial ecosystems: research progresses and prospects

FU Wei1,2, WU Hui1,2, ZHAO Ai-Hua1,2, HAO Zhi-Peng1, CHEN Bao-Dong1,2,*()   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-06-27 Accepted:2020-03-14 Online:2020-05-20 Published:2020-06-23
  • Contact: CHEN Bao-Dong
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41877050);National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFC0500702)

摘要:

随着人类对能源和食物需求的持续增长, 化石燃料和化学肥料的消耗急剧增加, 导致全球范围内大气氮沉降速率快速升高。目前, 我国已成为全球大气氮沉降的热点区域, 且氮沉降量可能会在较长一段时间内累积增加, 已严重威胁到生态系统结构和功能的稳定。该文梳理了近40年来国内外氮沉降生态效应研究的发展历史和前沿进展, 综述了氮沉降对陆地植被系统、土壤微生物群落和生态系统元素(碳、氮、磷)循环的影响及其作用机制。研究表明: 氮沉降导致的活性氮在陆地生态系统中的累积, 改变了土壤环境、元素平衡和物种共存关系, 驱动了生物多样性以及生态系统结构和功能的改变。氮沉降速率、沉降持续时间、氮输入形式、生物系统的生态化学计量内稳性和非生物环境条件共同决定了生态响应的性质和程度。基于对国内外氮沉降研究进展和发展趋势的分析, 该文讨论了我国在该研究领域存在的问题与不足, 倡议建立更为完善的全国性长期监测研究平台, 开展区域尺度甚至全球联网研究。同时, 要考虑多因子耦合, 从现象特征的描述向机理探究推进, 从而全面提升我国氮沉降生态效应基础研究与生态风险管理水平。

关键词: 氮沉降, 生态效应, 生物多样性, 土壤微生物, 生物地球化学循环

Abstract:

Due to huge consumption of fossil fuels and chemical fertilizers, substantial amount of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (N) has been released into the environment. Therefore, N deposition has gradually increased worldwide and become one of the most important issues of global change. China has been a N deposition hotspot, and N deposition is projected to last long duration, which poses serious threats to ecosystem stability and functionality. In this synthesis paper, we summarized the impacts of N deposition on aboveground vegetation, soil microorganisms and biogeochemical cycling of major elements (carbon, N and phosphorus) in terrestrial ecosystems by outlining the progresses in the research field during the past 40 years. Results indicate that the accumulation of reactive N compounds induced by N deposition alters the soil environment, ecological stoichiometric balance and species co-occurrence patterns, thereby changing biodiversity and ecosystem functions. The rates, forms and duration of N deposition and the homeostasis of biosystem together with abiotic environments determine the direction and extent of the ecosystem response to N deposition. Through analysing local and foreign studies in this research area, we explore the weaknesses of relevant research that are being conducted in China. To advance the basic research on and risk management of N deposition, we propose the establishment of a N deposition monitoring and research network across the country with consideration of different ecosystems to promote regional and global risk assessments. Future research should highlight the combined multiple factors with N deposition and conduct direct and in-depth mechanism studies.

Key words: nitrogen deposition, ecological impact, biodiversity, soil microorganisms, biogeochemical cycles