植物生态学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (11): 1154-1164.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2012.01154

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国亚热带地区4种极危冷杉属植物的地理分布特征及其与气候的关系

李晓笑, 陶翠, 王清春*, 崔国发*   

  1. 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2012-04-23 修回日期:2012-09-26 出版日期:2012-11-01 发布日期:2012-11-09
  • 通讯作者: 崔国发 E-mail:fa6716@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家林业公益性行业科研专项

Characteristics of geographic distribution of four critically endangered species of Abies in subtropical China and its relationship with climate

LI Xiao-Xiao, TAO Cui, WANG Qing-Chun*, and CUI Guo-Fa*   

  1. College of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2012-04-23 Revised:2012-09-26 Online:2012-11-01 Published:2012-11-09
  • Contact: CUI Guo-Fa E-mail:fa6716@163.com

摘要:

通过野外实地调查和文献调研, 分析4种极危冷杉属(Abies)植物的地理分布现状和特征, 构建其分布区的气候数据库, 采用国际上常用的研究植被与气候关系的指标和方法, 定量分析冷杉属地理分布与水热条件的关系, 并通过因子分析方法确定影响冷杉属地理分布的限制性气候因子。结果表明: 1)百山祖冷杉(Abies beshanzuensis)、梵净山冷杉(A. fanjingshanensis)、元宝山冷杉(A. yuanbaoshanensis)和资源冷杉(A. beshanzuensis var. ziyuanensis)零星分布于我国亚热带地区, 水平分布范围为25°25′–27°55′ N, 108°42′–119°12′ E , 分布范围狭窄; 垂直分布范围为1 363–2 390 m, 均分布于山体上部。海拔上限高度随着经度的减小而增加。2)整个分布区的气温较低, 年平均气温为7.4–11.2 ℃; 降水较为充沛, 年降水量为1 265.4–1 945.7 mm, 其中生长季降水量占74.78%; 湿度较大, 年相对湿度为77%–86%。气候指标范围狭窄, 表明对水热条件要求很高。分布区寒冷指数较低, 限制其垂直向下扩散, 呈现局限分布于山体上部的现状。3) 4种冷杉各分布区的气候条件基本相近, 梵净山冷杉分布区气温相对偏低, 元宝山冷杉分布区湿度相对偏大。4) 3个气候因子对这4种冷杉的地理分布影响较大, 其作用排序为: 低温因子>极端低温因子>湿度因子。在全球气候变暖的大背景下, 这4种冷杉自然分布区的适宜生境将进一步缩小, 直至物种灭绝, 急需开展迁地保护工作。

Abstract:
Aims Our objectives were to analyze the geographic distribution characteristics of four critically endangered species of Abies in China’s subtropical regions, clarify their relationship with climatic conditions and determine the climatic factors that restrict the geographic distributions.
Methods Geographic distribution information was collected from field survey and literature materials. Climate information was collected from China’s meteorological stations and used to build a climate database of the distribution area. Commonly used climatic indexes and research methods were applied to analyze the relationship between geographic distribution and climate. Restrictive climatic factors were determined based on factor analysis.
Important findings Abies beshanzuensis, A. fanjingshanensis, A. yuanbaoshanensis and A. beshanzuensis var. ziyuanensis are scattered in the subtropical region of China. The horizontal range of distribution is narrow: 25°25′–27°55′ N, 108°42′–119°12′ E. The populations are distributed vertically in the upper part of mountains, with altitude ranging from 1 363 to 2 390 m. The uppermost altitude rises with decreasing longitude. Temperature of the entire distribution area is low, with mean annual temperature 7.4–11.2 °C. Precipitation is abundant, with a mean annual precipitation of 1 265–1 946 mm, of which 75% falls in the growing season. Humidity is high, and annual relative humidity reaches 77%–86%. The ranges of climatic indexes are narrow, indicating specific requirements for water and heat. The coldness index of the distribution area is low, limiting vertical diffusion towards low altitude. Therefore, the populations are confined in the upper part of mountains. The distribution areas of different species share similar climatic conditions. The temperature is relatively lower in the distribution area of A. fanjingshanensis. The humidity is slightly higher in the distribution area of A. yuanbaoshanensis. Three climatic factors have a significant impact on geographic distribution. The ranking is low temperature factor > extreme low temperature factor > humidity factor. Considering global warming, suitable habitats of these four critically endangered species will continue to decrease until extinction of the species, so we urgently need to carry out immediate ex-situ conservation.