Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2016, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (6): 585-593.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0292

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of long-term flooding on respiratory metabolism of Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ seedlings

Yan-Ting ZHANG1, Jian-Jun ZHANG1,*(), Jian-Xiu WANG2, Xiao-Hong WU3, Bao-Qiang CHEN1, Peng-Fei LI1, Zhi-Zhen WANG1   

  1. 1School of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China

    2Forest Bureau in Kai County, Kai County, Chongqing 405400, China

    3Chongqing Hejia Spice Plant Limited Company, Chongqing 404000, China
  • Received:2015-08-11 Accepted:2016-03-26 Online:2016-06-15 Published:2016-06-30
  • Contact: Jian-Jun ZHANG E-mail:24493836@qq.com

Abstract:

Aims Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha’ had a strong submergence tolerance, but the biological mechanism is not clearly defined. The respiratory metabolism for the tolerance of Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ ((Taxodium distichum × Taxodium mucronatum) × Taxodium mucronatum) to long-term flooding was investigated through the measuring and analyzing the changes in root starch and soluble sugar as well as the contents of anaerobic respiration enzymes, including lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), ethanol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC)), in the ‘Zhongshansha 118’ seedling. The biomass and activities of the seedling roots were also measured and analyzed.Methods 24 1-year Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ seedlings were randomly and equally divided into four groups and each group experienced one of four different levels of flooding (i.e., no flooding, waterlogging, partial submergence, deep submergence) from August 8 to November 8, 2014.Important findings The results showed that the contents of the anaerobic respiration enzymes in the seedling roots and leaves are increasing with the levels of severity of flooding, which indicated the roots and leaves adapt to long-term flooding by reinforcing their anaerobic respiration and activities of ADH that were higher than LDH for roots and leaves used in alcoholic fermentation mainly. The activities of anaerobic respiration enzymes in leaves were higher than that in roots, while leaves were more sensitive to flooding. The starch and soluble sugar in roots and leaves had similar trend with anaerobic respiration enzymes. However, roots starch was higher than leaves where soluble sugar was lower than roots. The higher content of starch were the important reason of strong submergence tolerance, and we consider the strategy to fit into long-term flooding is patience type. The paper demonstrate Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ have the physiological and the morphological properties to adapt to long-term flooding, including aerial root and basal part of stem expanded and the outer wall of the root lignified to protect the roots from flooding.

Key words: flooding stress, anaerobic respiration enzymes, soluble sugar, flooding tolerance, Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha’

Table 1

The underground part biomass of Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ after 93 d flooding (mean ± SD)"

处理
Treatment
根质量
Root mass (g)
根长
Root length (cm)
根表面积
Root surface area (cm2)
根系分形维数
Root fractal dimension
对照 Control 10.23 ± 3.03a 873 ± 101a 256 ± 87a 1.67 ± 0.05a
水浸 Waterlogging 7.59 ± 1.21a 666 ± 105b 227 ± 94a 1.60 ± 0.09a
浅淹 Partial submergence 7.89 ± 0.94a 655 ± 114b 236 ± 59a 1.63 ± 0.04a
深淹 Deep submergence 5.26 ± 0.54a 508 ± 99c 164 ± 87a 1.61 ± 0.07a

Fig. 1

The changes of aerial root and basal part of stem in Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ under flooding treatments."

Table 2

Overground part biomass of Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ after 93 d flooding (mean ± SD)"

处理
Treatment
株高 Stem height (cm) 地径 Ground diameter (cm) 地上部分鲜质量
Fresh mass of overground part (g)
根质量/地上部分鲜质量
Root mass/fresh mass of overground part
水淹前
Before
flooding
水淹后
After
flooding
水淹前
Before
flooding
水淹后
After
flooding
水淹后
After flooding
对照 Control 47 ± 3.6a 48 ± 4.2a 0.65 ± 0.02a 0.61 ± 0.06a 35.78 ± 9.71a 0.29a
水浸 Waterlogging 39 ± 4.1a 34 ± 5.5b 0.58 ± 0.02a 0.55 ± 0.02b 29.56 ± 6.45b 0.26a
浅淹 Partial submergence 47 ± 3.9a 38 ± 2.1b 0.62 ± 0.03a 0.57 ± 0.04b 18.21 ± 2.49c 0.43b
深淹 Deep submergence 38 ± 6.8a 31 ± 3.3b 0.62 ± 0.04a 0.53 ± 0.09b 12.99 ± 3.66d 0.33c

Fig. 2

Effect on root activity of Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ during long-term flooding (mean ± SD). Different lowercase letters indicate significant difference (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 3

Effect on anaerobic respiration enzymes of Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ during long-term flooding (mean ± SD). Capital letters indicate significant difference among groups (p < 0.05) and lowercase letters indicate significant difference in intra-group (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 4

Effect on soluble sugar and starch of Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ during long-term flooding (mean ± SD). Capital letters indicate significant difference among groups (p < 0.05) and lowercase letters indicate significant difference in intra-group (p < 0.05)."

Table 3

Effect on soluble sugar and starch conversion of Taxodium ‘Zhongshansha 118’ during long-term flooding (mean ± SD)"

处理
Treatment
淀粉+可溶性糖 Starch + soluble sugar 根/(根+叶) Root/(root + leaf) (%)
根系 Root 叶片 Leaf 淀粉 Starch 可溶性糖 Soluble sugar
对照 Control 65.38 ± 3.01a 41.07 ± 2.83a 62.42 ± 2.40a 39.88 ± 3.80a
水浸 Waterlogging 78.85 ± 4.57b 47.41 ± 3.10b 62.78 ± 2.30a 47.56 ± 3.10b
浅淹 Partial submergence 87.83 ± 2.34c 55.86 ± 3.75c 61.82 ± 2.40a 47.29 ± 2.30b
深淹 Deep submergence 95.71 ± 4.58d 68.71 ± 4.21d 58.76 ± 0.10a 46.73 ± 3.20b
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