Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (2): 269-278.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0255

• Forum • Previous Articles    

An update of the vegetation classification in China

Yong-Chang SONG, En-Rong YAN*(), Kun SONG   

  1. School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2016-08-02 Accepted:2016-11-27 Online:2017-03-16 Published:2017-02-10
  • Contact: En-Rong YAN E-mail:eryan@des.ecnu.edu.cn
  • About author:KANG Jing-yao(1991-), E-mail: kangjingyao_nj@163.com

Abstract:

The vegetation classification in China was updated by referring to recent advances for vegetation classification worldwide and on the basis of our former paper Recognition and Proposal on the Vegetation Classification System of China (hereafter, “Recognition and Proposal”). In this revision, the criteria for vegetation classification were discussed and unified, and a quantified standard for high, medium, and low level units in a new hierarchical classification scheme was supplemented. Compared with the old classification scheme in “Recognition and Proposal”, the units at the level of vegetation type were substantially changed. Finally, in order to improve mutual communication among international peers, a comparison was carried out between the new revised scheme and each of International Classification and Mapping of Vegetation of UNESCO, The National Vegetation Classification Standard of United States, and The Braun-Blanquet Classification Scheme.

Key words: vegetation classification, vegetation type, formation, association, suggested scheme

Table 1

Comparison between “recommend scheme” and “80 classification scheme” for the vegetation classification in China"

80分类方案 80 Classification scheme 建议方案 Recommend scheme
高级单位(生态外貌) High level (Eco-physiognomic)
植被纲 Class of vegetation types
植被亚纲 Subclass of vegetation types
植被型组 Group of vegetation types 植被型组 Group of vegetation types
植被型 Vegetation type 植被型 Vegetation type
植被亚型 Vegetation subtype 植被亚型 Vegetation subtype
中级单位(区系特征, 着重优势种组成) Midle level (Floristc, emphasizing dominant species)
群系组 Formation group 集群 Collective group
群系 Formation 优势度型 Dominant type
亚群系 Subformation 优势度亚型 Dominant subtype
低级单位(区系特征, 着重标志种组) Low level (Floristic, emphasizing symbol species)
群丛 Association 群丛 Association

Appendix I

High level units (1-4) of the vegetation classification in China"

1级 Class 1 2级 Class 2 3级 Class 3 4级 Class 4
植被纲
Class of vegetation types
植被亚纲
Subclass of
vegetation types
植被型组
Group of vegetation types
植被型
Vegetation type
一、森林
Forest
I. 针叶林
Needle-leaved
forest
1. 落叶针叶林
Deciduous needle-leaved forest
1)典型寒温性落叶针叶林(地带性, 气候顶极)
Typical cold-temperate deciduous needle-leaved forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
2)山地寒温性落叶针叶林(亚高山垂直带)
Montane cold-temperate deciduous needle-leaved forest (Subalpine vertical zone)
3)暖性落叶针叶林(孑遗群落)
Warm deciduous needle-leaved forest (Relict community)
2. 常绿针叶林
Evergreen needle-leaved forest
4)典型寒温性常绿针叶林(地带性, 气候顶极)
Typical cold-temperate evergreen needle-leaved forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
5)山地寒温性常绿针叶林(亚高山垂直带)
Montane cold-temperate evergreen needle-leaved forest (Subalpine vertical zone)
6)温性常绿针叶林(地带性, 偏途顶极)
Temperate evergreen needle-leaved forest (Zonality, disclimax)
7)暖性常绿针叶林(地带性, 偏途顶极)
Warm evergreen needle-leaved forest (Zonality, disclimax)
8)热性常绿针叶林(地带性, 偏途顶极)
Torrid evergreen needle-leaved forest (Zonality, disclimax)
II. 针阔叶混交林
Mixed
needle-broad leaved forest
3. 针阔叶混交林
Mixed needle-broad leaved forest
9)典型凉温性针阔叶混交林(地带性, 气候顶极)
Typical cool-temperate mixed needle-broad leaved forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
10)山地针阔叶混交林(山地垂直带)
Montane mixed needle-broad leaved forest (Montane vertical zone)
11)次生针阔叶混交林(地带性, 偏途顶极)
Secondary mixed needle-broad leaved forest (Zonality, disclimax)
III. 阔叶林
Broad-leaved forest
4. 落叶阔叶林
Deciduous broad-leaved forest
12)典型落叶阔叶林 (地带性, 气候顶极)
Typical deciduous broad-leaved forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
13)山地落叶阔叶林(山地垂直带)
Montane deciduous broad-leaved forest (Montane vertical zone)
14)河岸落叶阔叶林 (地文顶极)
Riverside deciduous broad-leaved forest (Physiographic climax)
15)次生落叶阔叶林 (地带性, 歧顶极)
Secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest (Zonality plaigioclimax)
5. 常绿落叶阔叶混交林
Mixed evergreen
deciduous broad-leaved forest
16)典型常绿落叶阔叶混交林(地带性, 气候顶极)
Typical mixed evergreen deciduous broad-leaved forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
17)山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林(山地垂直带)
Montane mixed evergreen deciduous broad-leaved forest (Montane vertical zone)
18)石灰岩常绿落叶阔叶混交林(地文顶极)
Limestone mixed evergreen deciduous broad-leaved forest (Physiographic climax)
19)河谷常绿落叶阔叶混交林(地文顶极)
Ravine mixed evergreen deciduous broad-leaved forest (Physiographic climax)
6. 常绿苔藓林
Evergreen mossy forest
20)山地常绿苔藓林(山地垂直带)
Montane dwarf evergreen mossy forest (Montane vertical zone)
7. 常绿硬叶林
Evergreen sclerophyllous forest
21)山地常绿硬叶林(山地垂直带)
Montane evergreen sclerophyllous forest (Montane vertical zone)
22)干热河谷常绿硬叶林(地文顶极)
Xerothermic valley Evergreen sclerophyllous forest (Physiographic climax)
8. 常绿阔叶林
Evergreen broad-leaved forest
23)典型常绿阔叶林(地带性, 气候顶极)
Typical evergreen broad-leaved forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
24)季节常绿阔叶林(地带性, 气候顶极)
Seasonal evergreen broad-leaved forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
25)适雨常绿阔叶林(亚热带雨林)(地带性, 气候顶极)
Ombrophilous evergreen broad-leaved forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
9. 热带雨林
Tropical rain-forest
26)热带雨林(地带性, 气候顶极)
Tropical rain forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
27)季节热带雨林(地带性, 气候顶极)
Tropical seasonal rain forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
10. 热带季雨林
Tropical monsoon forest
28)落叶季风雨林(地带性, 气候顶极)
Tropical deciduous monsoon forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
29)半落叶季风雨林(地带性, 气候顶极)
Semi-deciduous monsoon forest (Zonality, climatic climax)
11. 热带海岸林
Tropical coastal forest
30)红树林(地文顶极)
Mangrove (Physiographic climax)
1级 Class 1 2级 Class 2 3级 Class 3 4级 Class 4
植被纲
Class of vegetation types
植被亚纲
Subclass of
vegetation types
植被型组
Group of vegetation types
植被型
Vegetation type
31)珊瑚礁海岸林(地文顶极)
Coral reef coastal forest (Physiographic climax)
IV. 竹林
Bamboo forest
12. 竹林
Bamboo forest
32)暖性竹林(地带性, 偏途顶极)
Warm bamboo forest (Zonality, disclimax)
33)热性竹林(地带性, 偏途顶极)
Torrid bamboo forest (Zonality, disclimax)
二、灌丛
Shrubland
V. 针叶灌丛
Needle-leaved shruland
13. 常绿针叶灌丛
Evergreen needle-leaved shrubland
34)亚高山常绿针叶灌丛(亚高山垂直带)
Subalpine evergreen needle-leaved shrubland (Subalpine vertical zone)
VI. 阔叶灌丛
Broad-leaved shrubland
14. 常绿革叶灌丛
Evergreen sclerophyllous shrubland
35)亚高山常绿革叶灌丛(亚高山垂直带)
Subalpine evergreen sclerophyllous shrubland (Subalpine vertical zone)
15. 落叶阔叶灌丛
Deciduous broad-leaved shrubland
36)亚高山落叶阔叶灌丛(亚高山垂直带)
Subalpine deciduous broad-leaved shrubland (Subalpine vertical zone)
37)温性落叶阔叶灌丛(地带性, 歧顶极)
Temperate deciduous broad-leaved shrubland (Zonality, plaigiographic climax)
38)暖性落叶阔叶灌丛(地带性, 歧顶极)
Warm deciduous broad-leaved shrubland (Zonality, plaigiographic climax)
16. 常绿阔叶灌丛
Evergreen broad-leaved shrubland
39)南方丘陵山地常绿阔叶灌丛(地带性, 歧顶极)
Southern hill-montane evergreen broad-leaved shrubland (Zonality, plaigiographic climax)
40)滨海岛礁常绿阔叶灌丛(地文顶极)
Seashore island evergreen broad-leaved shrubland (physiographic climax)
VII. 肉质多刺灌丛
Thorn-succulent shrubland
17. 肉刺灌丛
Thorn-succulent shrubland
41)热带滨海刺灌丛(地文顶极)
Tropical seashore thorn-succulent shrubland (physiographic climax)
42)干热河谷肉刺灌丛(地文顶极)
Xerothermic valley thorn-succulent shrubland (physiographic climax)
VIII. 竹灌丛
Bamboo thicket
18. 竹丛
Bamboo thicket
43)温性竹丛(地带性, 偏途顶极)
Warm bamboo thicket (Zonality, disclimax)
44)暖热性竹丛(地带性, 偏途顶极)
Torrid bamboo thicket (Zonality, disclimax)
三、草本植被
Herbaceous vegetation
IX. 旱生草本植被
Xeromophyic herbaceous vegetation
19. 温带草原
Temperate steppe
45)典型草原(地带性, 气候顶极)
Typical steppe (Zonality, climatic climax)
46)草甸草原(地带性, 气候顶极)
Meadow steppe (Zonality, climatic climax)
47)荒漠草原(地带性, 气候顶极)
Desert steppe (Zonality, climatic climax)
20. 高山草原
Alpine steppe
48)高山寒冷草原(高山垂直带)
Alpine cold steppe (Alpine vertical zone)
21. 稀树草原
Tropical savanna
49)热带海滨稀树草原(地文顶极)
Tropical seashore savanna (physiographic climax)
50)干热河谷稀树草原(地文顶极)
Xerothermic valley savanna (physiographic climax)
X. 中生草本植被
Mesophytic
herbaceous
vegetation
22. 草甸
Meadow
51)大陆草甸(地文顶极)
Continent meadow (physiographic climax)
52)泛滥低地草甸(地文顶极)
Flood plain meadow (physiographic climax)
53)亚高山高山草甸(地文顶极)
Alpine-subalpine meadow (physiographic climax)
23. 疏灌草坡
Sparse shrub grassland
54)温性疏灌草坡(地带性, 歧顶极)
Temperate sparse shrub grassland (Zonality, plaigioclimax)
55)热性疏灌草坡(地带性, 歧顶极)
Torrid sparse shrub grassland (Zonality, plaigioclimax)
四、极端干旱植被
Extreme drought
vegetation
XI. 荒漠
Desert
24. 温带荒漠
Temperate desert
56)灌木小乔木荒漠(地带性, 气候顶极)
Nano-arboreous fruticous dersert (Zonality, climatic climax)
57)小半灌木荒漠(地带性, 气候顶极)
Nano-semifruticous desert (Zonality, climatic climax)
58)一年生草本荒漠(地带性, 气候顶极)
Annual herb desert (Zonality, climatic climax)
25. 高山荒漠
Alpine desert
59)小半灌木高山荒漠(高山垂直带)
Nano-semifruticous alpine deserta (Alpine vertical zone)
1级 Class 1 2级 Class 2 3级 Class 3 4级 Class 4
植被纲
Class of vegetation types
植被亚纲
Subclass of
vegetation types
植被型组
Group of vegetation types
植被型
Vegetation type
五、极端寒冷植被
Extreme frigid vegetation
XII. 高山高寒植被
Alpine cold
vegetation
26. 高山冻原
Alpine tundra
60)藓类-小灌木高山冻原(山地垂直带)
Dwarf-shrub moss alpine tundra (Alpine vertical zone)
61)藓类-草类高山冻原(高山垂直带)
Herb-moss alpine tundra (Alpine vertical zone)
62)地衣、藓类高山冻原(高山垂直带)
Lichen-moss alpine tundra (Alpine vertical zone)
27. 高山垫状植被
Alpine cushion
vegetation
63)高山垫状植被(高山垂直带)
Alpine cushion vegetation (Alpine vertical zone)
28. 高山流石堆植被
Alpine scree vegetation
64)高山流石堆植被(地文顶极)
Alpine scree vegetation (physiographic climax)
六、极端多水植被
Extreme
waterlogging vegetation
XIII. 沼泽
Swamp
29. 沼泽
Swamps
65)藓类沼泽 Moss bog
66)草本沼泽 Herbaceous swamp
67)木本沼泽 Woody swamp
XIV. 水生植被
Aquatic
vegetation
30. 淡水水生植被
Fresh water vegetation
68)沉水植物群落 Submerged plant community
69)漂浮植物群落 Free floating plant community
70)浮叶植物群落 Rooted floating-leaved plant community
71)挺水植物群落 Emergent plant community
31. 咸水水生植被
Salt water vegetation
72)咸水沉水植物群落 Salt water submerged plant community

Table 2

Comparisons between “recommend scheme” and the schemes proposed by the UNESCO (1973), Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, 2008), and Braun-Blanquet et al. (1932)"

建议方案 (Song, 2011) UNESCO (1973) Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, 2008) Braun-Blanquet et al. (1932)
植被纲 Vegetation class 群系纲 Formation class 群系纲 Formation class
植被亚纲 Vegetation subclass 群系亚纲 Formation subclass 群系亚纲 Formation subclass
植被型组 Vegetation type group 群系组 Formation group
植被型 Vegetation type 群系 Formation 群系 Formation 群落纲 Class
植被亚型 Vegetation subtype 亚群系 Subformation 门类 Division
集群 Collective group 大组 Macro-group 群落目 Order
组 Group
优势度型 Dominant type 群团 Alliance 群团 Alliance
群丛 Association 群丛 Association 群丛 Association
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