Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (4): 407-418.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2017.0191

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Bryophyte-cyanobacteria symbioses and their nitrogen fixation capacity—A review

Chun-Yan PI1,2,Xin LIU1,Zhe WANG3,Wei-Kai BAO1*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization & Ecological Restoration Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China;
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
  • Online:2018-03-08 Published:2018-04-20

Abstract:

Bryophyte-cyanobacteria symbiosis (BCS) is a key source of nitrogen input into ecosystems in nutrient-poor regions. Investigating BCS relationships and the nitrogen fixation capacity can be a new pathway and window to explore the process and mechanism of nitrogen input and nitrogen cycling. However, BCS relationships and nitrogen fixation/cycling processes and mechanisms remain poorly studied, and most of these studies have only focused on the boreal forest, with no report from Chinese forests. Based on systematic literature search and analysis, this review provides a summary on BCS relationships, the nitrogen fixation capability of BCS, the fate of fixed nitrogen, as well as the environmental factors and driving mechanisms of BCS. Firstly, we synthesized different types of BCS, the mechanisms by which the fixed nitrogen is transferred to and used by other plants within the forest, the rate of fixed nitrogen, the factors influencing the rate of nitrogen fixation. Moreover we point out the existing problems that need to pay close attention to and at least four research directions need to break through. Furthermore, the theoretical basis of BCS is provided for further research, promote and deepen the cognition of BCS and nitrogen-fixing research.

Key words: bryophyte-cyanobacteria symbiosis, nitrogen fixation, ecosystem nitrogen inputs, nitrogen cycle, driving factor

Fig. 1

An old-growth Abies fargesii var. faxoniana forest site in eastern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau with a moss dominated understory. Dominate moss species are Hylocomium splendens, Actinothuidium hookeri, Ptilium crista-castrensis, and Pleurozium schreberi."

Table 1

Types and relationships of bryophyte-cyanobacteria symbiosis"

类型 Type 苔藓种类及与蓝藻关系
Bbryophyte and the relationship with
cyanobacteria (En or Ep)
蓝藻种类 Cyanobacteria 参考文献 Reference
角苔-藻共生体
Hornwort-cyanobacteria symbiosis
角苔属 Anthoceros sp. (En 1)
树角苔属 Dendroceros sp. (En 1)
短角苔属 Notothylas sp. (En 1)
黄角苔属 Phaeoceros sp. (En 1)
1 念珠藻属 Nostoc sp. Rippka et al., 1979; Meeks, 1990; West & Adams, 1997; Houle et al., 2006; Arróniz-Crespo et al., 2014
苔-藻共生体
Liverwort-cyanobacteria symbiosis
Anastrophyllum involutifolium (Ep1)
壶苞苔属 Blasia sp. (Ep 1, 2, 4; En 1)
Cavicularia sp. (En 1)
Chiloscyphus leptanthus (Ep 1)
地钱属 Marchantia sp. (Ep 1)
光萼苔 Porella sp. (Ep 1)
1 念珠藻属 Nostoc sp.
2 眉藻属 Calothrix sp.
3 真枝藻属 Stigonema sp.
4 Chlorogloeopsis sp.
Rippka et al., 1979; Meeks, 1990; West & Adams, 1997; Houle et al., 2006; Arróniz-Crespo et al., 2014
藓-藻共生体
Moss-cyanobacteria
symbiosis
Acroschisma wilsonii (Ep 1)
Andreaea alpine (Ep 1)
Andreaea laxifolia (Ep 1)
皱缩藓 Aulacomnium palustre (Ep 1)
Blepharidophyllum densifolium (Ep 1)
真藓属 Bryum sp. (Ep 1, 5, 6 7)
Calliergon richardsonii (Ep 1)
角齿藓 Ceratodon purpureus (Ep 5, 6, 7)
Clasmatocolea humilis (Ep 1)
Cryptochila grandiflora (Ep 1)
Dendroligotrichum squamosum (Ep 1)
Dicranoloma chilense (Ep1)
Ditrichum cylindricarpum (Ep 1)
镰刀藓属 Drepanocladus sp. (Ep 1, 2, 4)
Drepanocladus exannulatus (Ep 1)
Dupontia sp. (Ep 1)
紫萼藓属 Grimmia sp. (Ep 1)
Heteroscyphus magellanicus (Ep 1)
塔藓 Hylocomium splendens (Ep 1, 3)
沼寒藓 Paludella squarrosa (Ep 1)
赤茎藓 Pleurozium schreberi (Ep 1, 3)
毛梳藓 Ptilium sp. (Ep 1, 3)
Racomitrium Subcrispipilum (Ep 1)
Racomitrium laevigatum (Ep 1)
白毛砂藓 Racomitrium lanuginosum (Ep 1)
Racomitrium didymium (Ep 1)
三洋藓 Sanionia uncinata (EP 1)
Sphagnum lindebergii (Ep 1; En 1.1)
岸生泥炭藓 Sphagnum riparium (Ep 1; En 1.1)
毛青藓 Tomentypnum nitens (Ep 1)
小石藓 Weisia controversa (Ep 5, 6, 7)
1 念珠藻属 Nostoc sp.
1.1 灰色念珠藻 Nostoc muscorum
2 眉藻属 Calothrix sp.
3 真枝藻属 Stigonema sp.
4 伪枝藻属 Scytonema sp.
5 Anobena sp.
6 颤藻属Oscillatoria sp.
7 鞘丝藻属 Lyngbya sp.
Granhall & Selander, 1973b; Rippka et al., 1979; Reddy & Giddens, 1981; Davey & Marchant, 1983; Meeks, 1990; West & Adams, 1997; Gentili et al., 2005; Houle et al., 2006; Gavazov et al., 2010; Arróniz-Crespo et al., 2014
小计 Total 41 8

Fig. 2

Nitrogen fixation capacities (kg·hm-2·a-1) of bryophyte-cyanobacteria symbioses in different sites. All the data in the figure are from: Blundon & Dale, 1990; Deluca et al., 2002b; Lagerstorm et al., 2007; Markham, 2009; Zackrisson et al., 2009; Gundale et al., 2011; Lindo & Whiteley, 2011; Stewart et al., 2011a; Rousk et al., 2013b; Stuiver et al., 2015."

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