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Table of Content
    Volume 42 Issue 10
    20 October 2018
      
    Review
    A review on the relationships between plant genetic diversity and ecosystem functioning
    ZHANG Li-Wen, HAN Guang-Xuan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2018, 42 (10):  977-989.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0013
    Abstract ( 630 )   HTML ( 89 )   PDF (902KB) ( 446 )   Save
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    The loss of genetic diversity is accelerating due to habitat loss and population reduction caused by global change and anthropologenic activities. For species-poor ecosystems, the effect of genetic diversity on ecosystem functioning may not be smaller than that of species diversity. Therefore, understanding the relationship between genetic diversity and ecosystem functioning (GD-EF) and its underlying mechanisms is important for biodiversity conservation, responses of ecosystems to environmental change and ecological restoration. Here, we reviewed the studies on the effects of plant genetic diversity on ecosystem structures (community structure of the higher tropic level) and ecosystem functions (primary production, nutrient cycling and ecosystem stability), and the mechanisms underlying these relationships. We also discussed the influence of functional diversity on GD-EF, the comparison of effects of the genetic and species diversity on ecosystem functioning, and the application of GD-EF in the ecological restorations. We finally pointed out the limitations in current studies to provide references for the future: (1) further studies on the mechanisms of GD-EF are needed; (2) no study has evaluated the influence of genetic diversity on maltifunctinarity; (3) the impacts of different measurements of genetic diversity on ecosystem functioning are unclear; (4) there are lack of long-time GD-EF studies and GD-EF studies conducted at multidimensional scales; (5) the relative importance of genetic diversity and other factors on ecosystem functioning in the nature is unclear.

    Research Articles
    Effects of exotic-native species relationship on naturalization and invasion of exotic plant species
    ZHENG Shan-Shan, CHEN Xu-Bo, XU Wei-Nan, LUO Zheng-Rong, XIA Geng-Shou
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2018, 42 (10):  990-999.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0101
    Abstract ( 317 )   HTML ( 42 )   PDF (979KB) ( 206 )   Save
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    Aims Darwin’s naturalization conundrum describes the paradox that the relationship of exotic species to native residents could either promote or hinder invasion success through opposing mechanisms: niche pre-adaptation or competitive interactions. Previous Darwin’s naturalization studies have showed invasion success could vary at stages, sites, and spatial and phylogenetic scales. Our objective was to assess the effects of exotic-native species relationship on invasion process of exotic plant species in China, where related research is still lacking.
    Methods Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine relationship between exotic-native species relationship and performance of exotic species at different spatial scale (provincial, municipal and community) and invasion stages (naturalization, dispersal and invasion). At community scale, we measured environmental factors of communities we investigated to control the effect of habitat heterogeneity among them.
    Important findings At the provincial and municipal scales, exotic species closely related to native flora were more likely to be naturalized and distributed, which is more consistent with the expectation of the pre-adaptation hypothesis. On the community scale, the exotic-native species relationship was not related to establishment and abundance of exotic species in the community. The results suggested that exotic species did not strongly compete with their close native relatives in communities, but were better adapted to areas where their close relatives had lived. Considering their high potential of naturalization and invasion, special attention should be paid to those exotic species that closely related to the native flora in the management of invasive species.

    Construction of CO2-response model of electron transport rate in C4 crop and its application
    YE Zi-Piao, DUAN Shi-Hua, AN Ting, KANG Hua-Jing
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2018, 42 (10):  1000-1008.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0129
    Abstract ( 321 )   HTML ( 43 )   PDF (1041KB) ( 168 )   Save
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    Aims Accurate estimation of variation tendency of photosynthetic electron flow response to CO2 is of great significance to understand the photosynthetic processes.
    Methods A model of electron transport rate (J) response to CO2 (model II) was developed based on a new model of photosynthesis response to CO2 (model I). The data of maize (Zea mays) and grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) that were measured by LI-6400-40 portable photosynthetic apparatus were fitted by the two models, respectively.
    Important findings The results indicated that the model II could well characterize and fit the CO2-response curves of electron transport rate (J-Ca curve) for maize and grain amaranth, and the maximum electron transport rates of maize and grain amaranth were 262.41 and 393.07 mmol·m -2·s -1, which were in very close agreement with the estimated values (p > 0.05), respectively. Based on these results, the allocation to other pathways of photosynthetic electronic flow were discussed. At 380 mmol·mol -1 CO2, the photosynthetic electron flows for carbon assimilation of maize and grain amaranth carbon were 247.92 and 285.16 mmol·m -2·s -1, respectively, when the CO2 for recovery of mitochondrial respiration was considered, and the photosynthetic electron flows for other pathways were 14.49 and 107.91 mmol·m -2·s -1, respectively. The photosynthetic electron flows for other pathways in grain amaranth were more six times than that in maize. The analysis shows that this difference is closely related to the types of catalytic decarboxylase and the locations of decarboxylation reactions. This finding provides a new perspective for investigating the differences between the two subtypes of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate malic acid enzyme type and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide malic acid enzyme type in C4 species. In addition, the CO2-response model of electron transport rate offers us an alternative mathematical tool for investigating the photosynthetic electron flow of C4 crop.

    Simulation on the light-response curves of electron transport rate of Quercus variabilis and Robinia pseudoacacia leaves in the Xiaolangdi area, China
    LI Li-Yuan, LI Jun, TONG Xiao-Juan, MENG Ping, ZHANG Jin-Song, ZHANG Jing-Ru
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2018, 42 (10):  1009-1021.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0063
    Abstract ( 158 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF (1217KB) ( 143 )   Save
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    Aims The objectives are to compare the merits and demerits of rectangular hyperbola, nonrectangular hyperbola and the electron transport rate light-response Ye model, to investigate the difference of electron transport rate between the shaded and sunlit leaves, and to discuss the influence of bioenvironmental factors on the characteristic parameters of electron transport rate.
    Methods The light-response (J-I) curves of electron transport rate were measured by the LI-6400XT fluorescence measurement system in Quercus variabilis and Robinia pseudoacacia plantations in north China. The rectangular hyperbola, nonrectangular hyperbola and the Ye model were used to simulate electron transport rate of the light-response curves.
    Important findings The results showed that the determination coefficient of the J-I curves fitted by three models were more than 0.96. Compared with the rectangular hyperbola and nonrectangular hyperbola, the determination coefficient of the Ye model was the highest (> 0.99). The dynamic downregulation of photosystem II and the saturated light intensity (Isat) cannot be simulated and obtained by the rectangular hyperbola model and the nonrectangular hyperbola model. The maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) obtained by the rectangular hyperbola model was obviously higher than the measured one. The dynamic downregulation of photosystem II was well simulated by the Ye model. The Jmax and Isat values obtained by the Ye model were close to the measured ones. The Jmax values of the shaded leaves of Quercus variabilis and Robinia pseudoacacia were 25.0% and 18.0% lower than the sunlit leaves, respectively. The Isat values of the sunlit leaves of Q. variabilis and R. pseudoacacia were 26.0% and 10.1% higher than those of the shaded leaves. Jmax of Q. variabilis and R. pseudoacacia was correlated with temperature. Isat of R. pseudoacacia was correlated with temperature, soil water content and net photosynthetic rate. The initial slope (α) values of the J-I curves for Q. variabilis and R. pseudoacacia had significant negative relationships with net photosynthetic rate.

    Effects of desertification on the C:N:P stoichiometry of soil, microbes, and extracellular enzymes in a desert grassland
    WU Xiu-Zhi, YAN Xin, WANG Bo, LIU Ren-Tao, AN Hui
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2018, 42 (10):  1022-1032.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0121
    Abstract ( 277 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (1387KB) ( 244 )   Save
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    Aims In order to discuss the underlying mechanism of desertification effect on the ecological stoichiometry of soil, microbes and extracellular enzymes, we studied the changes of soil, soil microbial and extracellular enzyme C:N:P stoichiometry during the desertification process in the desert grassland in Yanchi County, China.
    Methods The “space-for-time” method was used.
    Important findings The results demonstrated that: (1) Soil C, N, P contents and soil C:P, N:P significantly decreased, but soil C:N gradually increased with increasing desertification. (2) Soil microbial biomass C (MBC):soil microbial biomass P (MBP), soil microbial biomass N (MBN):MBP and soil β-1,4-glucosidase (BG):β-1,4-N- acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) gradually decreased, soil BG:alkaline phosphatase (AP) and NAG:AP basically showed an increasing trend with increasing desertification. (3) Desertification increased the soil microbial carbon use efficiency (CUEC:N and CUEC:P) gradually, while soil microbial nitrogen use efficiency (NUEN:C) and soil microbial phosphorus use efficiency (PUEP:C) basically decreased. (4) Soil, soil microbial and soil extracellular enzyme C:N stoichiometry (C:N, MBC:MBN, BG:NAG) were significantly negatively correlated with the soil, soil microbial and extracellular enzyme N:P stoichiometry (N:P, MBN:MBP, NAG:AP), the soil and extracellular enzymes C:N (C:N, BG:NAG) were significantly positively correlated with the soil and extracellular enzymes C:P (C:P, BG:AP). Soil N:P was significantly positively correlated with the soil MBN:MBP, but was significantly negatively correlated with the soil NAG:AP. The analysis demonstrated that soil microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity changed with soil nutrient during the desertification process in the desert grassland. The covariation relationship between soil nutrient and C:N:P stoichiometry of microbial-extracellular enzyme provides a theoretical basis for understanding the underlying mechanism of C, N, P cycling in the soil-microbial system in desert grasslands.

    Characteristics of soil water distribution and evaluation of recharge rate under different grazing history in the Xilin Gol Steppe
    LI Jin-Bo, YAO Nan, ZHAO Ying, FAN Ting, ZHANG Jian-Guo, LAN Zhi-Long, YI Jun, SI Bing-Cheng
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2018, 42 (10):  1033-1042.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0067
    Abstract ( 501 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (1129KB) ( 167 )   Save
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    Aims In the Xilin Gol Steppe, human-induced grassland degradation and land desertification are becoming increasingly severe. Critical evaluation of its impact on soil water and recharge rate is important for sustainable management of soil health and water resources in the region.
    Methods In order to determine the effect of different grazing history on dynamics of deep soil moisture contents and precipitation infiltration in the Xilin Gol Steppe, three sites with different grazing history (ungrazed since 1979 or UG79, ungrazed since 1999 or UG99, and continuously grazed or CG) were selected with two sampling spots for each site. The precipitation infiltration was estimated using the chloride mass balance method.
    Important findings The results showed that: 1) Average soil water content of 0-5 m was 7.1%, 6.9%, and 6.3% for UG79, UG99, and CG, respectively, with no significant difference. In the soil layer of 0-2 m, the soil water content of UG79 was 26.6% and 33.7% higher than that of UG99 and CG, respectively. The soil water content of UG79 was significantly higher than that of UG79 and UG99 (p < 0.05) with no significant difference between UG99 and CG. The soil water storage capacity of UG79 was 87.19 mm higher than UG99 and 82.52 mm higher than CG. In the deep layer of 2-5 m, no significant difference in the soil water content and the water storage among different grazing history. 2) The factors influencing soil water differed among different grazing treatments. The soil water content was mainly affected by the vegetation conditions and soil properties for the 0-2 m soil layer, but by the composition of soil particles for the 2-5 m soil layer. The effect of soil organic matter (SOM) content on soil water increased with time without grazing. Soil water content of the entire soil profile of UG79 was significantly correlated with soil texture and SOM content (p < 0.01). Soil water content of 0-2 m was significantly correlated with SOM content (p < 0.01), soil water content of 2-5 m was significantly correlated with the soil texture (p <0.01), but soil moisture content of UG99 and CG had no significant correlation with SOM content. 3) Annual recharge rate was 5.64, 3.54, and 2.45 mm·a -1 for UG79, UG99 and CG, respectively. The recharge rate increased by 44.5% and 130.2% for the site without grazing for 15 and 35 years, respectively. The recharge rate in the study area ranged from 1.95 to 7.61 mm·a -1, accounting for only 0.55%-2.13% of the precipitation. In summary, ungrazing treatment can increase soil water retention, total water storage capacity, and recharge.

    Approximate analytical solutions of root surface nutrient uptake flux and rhizosphere solute concentrations
    Hui-Ping ZHANG,Shu-Yue WANG,Zhong-Hui OU
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2018, 42 (10):  1043-1049.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0117
    Abstract ( 299 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (1090KB) ( 138 )   Save
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    Aims We use the Nye-Tinker-Barber model to obtain approximate analytical solutions of the root surface nutrient uptake flux and the rhizosphere solute concentrations.
    Methods The rhizosphere is divided into the distant field and the close-range field. The outer solution is obtained by the similarity variable method, and the inner solution is obtained by the rescaling method. Expanding the outer solution from root surface and matching it with the inner solution, we finally obtain the approximate analytical solutions of the root surface nutrient uptake flux and rhizosphere solute concentrations based on Nye-Tinker-Barber model. Numerical simulations are performed on the uptake fluxes of six elements (N, K, P, Mg, S and Ca) and the solute concentrations of two elements (N and K). Comparisons are made among the Nye- Tinker-Barber model approximate analytical solutions, Roose’s analytical solutions and the numerical solutions.
    Important findings The approximate analytical solutions of the root surface uptake fluxes based on the diffusion Nye-Tinker-Barber model are similar to those of the Roose's analytical solutions; both approaches produced higher values than the numerical solutions. The approximate analytical solutions of the rhizosphere N and K concentrations based on the diffusion Nye-Tinker-Barber model are similar to the Roose’s analytical solutions and coincide with the trend of changes in the numerical solutions. The approximate analytical solutions of all elements but N, of the root surface, uptake fluxes based on the convection-diffusion Nye-Tinker-Barber model are more similar to the numerical solutions than the Roose’s analytical solutions, and the approximate analytical solutions of the rhizosphere N and K concentrations are coincide with the trend of changes in the numerical solutions.

    Data Paper
    Species composition and structure characteristics of the major montane shrub communities in the west slope of Helan Mountains, Nei Mongol, China
    SU Chuang, MA Wen-Hong, ZHANG Xin-Yu, SU Yun, MIN Yong-En, ZHANG Jin-Yuan, ZHAO Li-Qing, LIANG Cun-Zhu
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2018, 42 (10):  1050-1054.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0111
    Abstract ( 707 )   HTML ( 58 )   PDF (833KB) ( 361 )   Save
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    Scrubland is the most important vegetation component in Helan Mountains, Nei Mongol, but remians very poorly studied. In order to understand the distribution and growth status of the scrubland resources in this area, the shrub communities in the National Nature Reserve of Helan Mountains were sampled. Using the community data, the characteristics of the community structure were quantitatively analyzed. The results show that the shrub communities along an altitudinal gradient in the National Nature Reserve of Helan Mountains include the following formations: Form. Cotoneaster soongoricus, Form. Syringa oblata, Form. Potentilla parvifolia, Form. Ostryopsis davidiana, Form. Lonicera microphylla, Form. Potentilla glabra, Form. Salix oritrepha and Form. Caragana jubata. Furthermore, we also provide the data on species composition and structures of these montane shrub communities, which could provide insight for the conservation and management of these valuable communities.


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