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Table of Content
    Volume 44 Issue 预发表
    20 December 2020
      
    Variations of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation along the environmental gradient in alpine grasslands on the Northern Xizang Plateau
    Ning ZONG Pei-Li SHI Guang-Shuai ZHAO 郑 莉莉 Ben NIU Tian-Cai ZHOU Ge HOU
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0135
    Abstract ( 145 )   PDF (710KB) ( 50 )   Save
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    Aims Understanding the mode of nutrient limitation of ecosystem net primary production is an important issue of modern ecology. Nutrient availability is a key determinant of ecosystem dynamics, but the relationship between soil resource availability and ecosystem nutrient limitation is still unclear. Methods A series of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient addition experiments were set up in four types of alpine grasslands (alpine meadow, alpine meadow-steppe, alpine steppe and alpine desert-steppe) along the precipitation gradient in the Northern Xizang, to systematically study the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on different types of alpine grasslands, and explore the nitrogen and phosphorus limitation models of different alpine grasslands. Important findings The results showed that: (1) The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on different alpine grasslands are different. Nitrogen addition significantly increased the aboveground biomass of alpine meadows and alpine meadow grasslands, but had no effect on alpine meadows and alpine desert grasslands. The addition of phosphorus alone had no significant effect on the four alpine grasslands, while the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus had a promoting effect on the aboveground biomass of the four alpine grasslands. (2) With the decrease of rainfall, the nitrogen limitation index of the alpine grasslands gradually decreased from 1.18 to 0.52-0.64, and the nutrient limitation mode transitioned from nitrogen limitation to co-limitation by nitrogen and phosphorus; the phosphorus limitation index was negative in the alpine meadow-steppe and alpine steppe, indicating that phosphorus addition alone has side effects on these two grassland types. These results suggest that alpine meadow is mainly limited by nitrogen availability, and phosphorus addition alone has side effects; the alpine meadow-steppe is between the nitrogen limit and the nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, and phosphorus addition alone also has side effects; the alpine steppe is limited by both nitrogen and phosphorus availability, and the addition of phosphorus has side effects; the alpine desert-steppe is jointly limited by nitrogen and phosphorus availability. These results show that nutrient limitation mode transitions from nitrogen limitation to nitrogen and phosphorus co-limitation with the decrease of rainfall. The impacts of increasing nitrogen deposition under future climate change on different types of alpine grasslands may be different. Additionally, the differences in nitrogen and phosphorus limitation mode should also be taken into account when nutrient addition is used to restore different types of degraded alpine grasslands.
    The effect of soil organic matter chemical compositions on soil protease and urease activity of alpine grassland soils in Northern Tibet, China
    Shuqin Ma Ziwei Wang Youchao Chen Xuyang Lu
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0169
    Abstract ( 187 )   PDF (5315KB) ( 32 )   Save
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    Aims Soil enzymes play an important role in the process of soil nutrient transformation. The main purpose of this study is to explore the soil organic matter chemical compositions and its effect on soil protease and urease activity in alpine grasslands in Northern Xizang, China. Methods The pyrolysis Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (Py-GC/MS) was used to obtain the chemical compositions of soil organic matter, and to analyze the relationships between soil chemical compositions and soil enzyme activity from five alpine grasslands, including alpine meadow, alpine grassland, alpine meadow grassland, alpine desert grassland and alpine desert in Northern Xizang, China. Important findings The results showed that the enzyme activities among five alpine grassland soils (0-15 cm) were different. The urease activity in the soil of alpine desert steppe was significantly higher than protease, while the difference between the urease and protease activities of other types of alpine grassland did not reach statistical significance. The difference of soil protease activity was significant difference among five alpine grassland types, while the difference of soil urease activity was not significant. The correlation analysis showed that the protease activity was closely related to the relative abundance of alkanes, alkenes and aromatics in soil organic matter and the ratio of furfural to pyrrole. Nevertheless, the correlation relationships between urease activity and soil organic matter chemical compositions were not significant. The results indicated that alpine grassland type and soil organic matter chemistry were the key factors affecting soil protease activity rather than soil urease activity, hence the urease activity of alpine grassland soils and its influencing factors needed further study.
    Soil enzyme activities and their influencing factors among different alpine grasslands in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Ziwei Wang Songze Wan Hongmao Jiang Yang Hu Shuqin Ma Youchao Chen Xuyang Lu
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0139
    Abstract ( 253 )   PDF (2481KB) ( 47 )   Save
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    Aims As a key factor of nutrient cycling in ecosystem, soil enzyme activity is an important indicator of soil quality and ecosystem function. However, there were few studies on the differences of soil enzyme activities among different alpine grassland ecosystem types. Thus, the aims of this study were to compare the differences of soil enzyme activities among five different alpine grassland types and to reveal their influencing environmental factors in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Methods 21 samples of five alpine grassland types, including alpine meadow (AM), alpine steppe (AS), alpine meadow steppe (AMS), alpine desert steppe (ADS) and alpine desert (AD) in northern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, were selected for field in-situ investigation and sampling. The activities of 14 enzymes involved in the cycling of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were determined, and the relationships between enzymatic activities and environmental factors in alpine grassland were established. Important findings The activities of C-acquisition (invertase, cellulase, β-1,4-glucosidse, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase), P-acquisition (alkaline phosphatase) enzymes and two N-acquisition (arylamidase and nitrite reductase) were significantly different among different alpine grassland types. And the correlations were found among C-acquisition, N-acquisition and P-acquisition enzymes. A significant positive correlation was found between invertase and alkaline phosphatase, between cellulase and N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminidase. A significant negative correlation was found between polyphenol oxidase and nitrite reductase, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, gram negative bacteria (G-) content, ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P), gram positive bacteria (G+) content, bacteria content, actinomycetes content, total nitrogen (TN) content and fungi content were the key factors which influencing soil enzyme activity among the 19 environmental indicators, and SOM content had the greatest impact (explains 11.9%). The results demonstrated that the activities of C-acquisition, P-acquisition and two N-acquisition (arylamidase and nitrite reductase) enzymes were significantly different among different types of alpine grassland. And soil enzyme activities were mainly controlled by SOM content, microbes and N elements in alpine grassland ecosystems. The results of this study will provide a scientific reference for predicting soil enzyme activity in the alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its response to global changes, and provide a theoretical basis for maintaining the primary productivity of alpine grassland ecosystem.
    Impacts of global changes on food web structure
    Qing-Qing WANG Yan GAO
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0061
    Abstract ( 266 )   PDF (781KB) ( 28 )   Save
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    The food web sustains its structure mainly by bottom-up and top-down controls, which are based on the interactions between species at different trophic levels. However, global changes can alter interspecific relationships and threaten the maintenance of biodiversity, but it is still unclear how global change alters the structure of the food webs. In recent years, based on numerous studies on food webs composed of multi-trophic levels at large spatiotemporal scales, researchers have found that global changes alter food web structure mainly through three mechanisms: phenological mismatching, loss of key species and biological invasion. Here we focused on these three mechanisms and reviewed how these mechanisms change food web structure change, with further discussion on the driving factors in ecology and evolution. All these three mechanisms can alter the interspecific interactions, resulting in distortion of the regulation of food webs. The major difference among these three mechanisms is how interspecific interactions are changed. Phenological mismatching occurs due to the asynchronous responses in the phenology of different species to global changes, while the loss of key species can change or even entirely destroys some critical feeding/predation relationships, and invasive species often simplify the food web structure by causing strong interspecific competition to exclude species at the same trophic level. Finally, we addressed that the changes in food web structure depends on the adaptation of species to the ongoing global changes and provided some insights into future researches. As the impacts of global changes are increasingly aggravating, it is necessary to further study the mechanisms how global changes influence food web structure, to reinforce the extant theoretical basis for improvements in the strategies of biodiversity conservation and ecological restoration.
    Assembly, ecosystem functions and stability in species interaction networks
    Hai-Dong LI Xin-Wei WU Zhi-Shu XIAO
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2019.0159
    Abstract ( 44 )   PDF (347KB) ( 30 )   Save
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    Diverse interaction types among species form complex species interaction networks in diverse ecological communities. Understanding how the structure of complex species interaction networks affects ecosystem functions and stability of communities is one major issue in community ecology. Species interactions can directly affect the flow and circulation of matter and energy among different components of ecosystems, and hence the structure of interaction networks can also influence the structure, stability, and functioning of ecological communities. Studies on interaction networks have shed important insights into community assembly, biodiversity maintenance, the stability of the ecosystem, coevolution and trait diversification. Currently, biodiversity and ecosystem functions have been largely affected by global environmental changes. The interaction networks and their ecosystem consequences of biodiversity loss in a changing world have become important research topics. Exploring the structure and assembly of species interaction networks, stability, and ecosystem functions is of great significance for understanding the maintenance mechanism and conservation management of biodiversity. Here, we reviewed the advances in the structure and determinants of ecological networks, network stability, the relationship between network and ecosystem functions, and the mechanisms underlying these relationships. We also provide suggestions and directions for future research on how to apply machine learning and multilayer network to disentangle the effects of environmental change on network structure and ecosystem functions by integrating theoretical with empirical studies.
    Altitudinal variation in flowering area and position and their ecological significances of an alpine cushion Arenaria polytrichoides, a gynodioecious herb
    Yazhou Zhang Songwei Wang Xiao-fang He Yang Yang Jianguo Chen Hang Sun
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0124
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (1210KB) ( 9 )   Save
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    Aims As foundation species in the alpine ecosystems, the reproduction and recruitment of alpine cushion plants are very important for sustaining the alpine ecosystem functions. However, it still remains unclear that how cushion plants effectively allocate resources to optimize reproductive fitness. Methods Here we selected five populations of a gynodioecious herb Arenaria polytrichoides with different ex-posures and slopes along an altitudinal gradient on Baima snow mountain in northwest Yunnan, southwest China, to investigate and compare flowering area and positions, within and among populations and between female and hermaphroditic morphs. By doing so, we further discuss how the environmental stresses affect the cushion’s flowering attributes thus the population-level reproduction. Important findings The results showed that, individual plant size and resources allocated to flowering (flower-ing area %) both decreased with increasing elevation, indicating that the reproductive allocation strategy was sig-nificantly affected by elevation. However, a population at lower elevation showed lower reproductive investment than higher populations, suggesting that elevation was not the only factor affecting the cushion’s reproductive allocation. In addition, absolute flowering area increased with increasing individual size, but the flowering area ratio decreased, indicating that the increases in reproductive allocation are fewer than that in vegetative allocation. Hermaphroditic individuals invested more resources to flowering than females did, but again, such effect was af-fected by elevation. Moreover, within a single population, the flowering areas were significantly different among the four directions (east, south, west and north) within one single individual canopy, but such differences varied in different populations. This study is the first to reveal how ecological factors affect alpine cushion plant repro-ductive allocation, shedding light on how alpine cushion species maintain and recruit their populations.
    Effects of waterlogging and increased soil nutrients on growth and reproduction of Polygonum hydropiper originating from low and high elevations in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region
    Yu-Han CHEN Yi-Fu LUO Xin-Sheng SUN Guan-Wen WEI Wen-Jun HUANG Fei-Hai YU
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0159
    Abstract ( 68 )   PDF (661KB) ( 17 )   Save
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    Aims Flooding and soil nutrients are the main environmental factors that affect plant growth in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR). Flooding intensity and concentration of soil nutrients experienced by riparian plants at different elevations of the hydro-fluctuation belt are different; therefore, we hypothesized that growth and reproductive responses of plants of the same species from different elevations to waterlogging and increased soil nutrients are also different. Methods In this study, the riparian species Polygonum hydropiper, which is widely distributed at low and high elevations of the hydro-fluctuation belt of the TGRR, was selected and its seeds were collected from natural populations. Effects of waterlogging and soil nutrients on growth and reproductive traits of P. hydropiper from high- and low-elevation areas were studied in a common-garden greenhouse experiment. Important findings Waterlogging significantly, or with marginal significance, decreased length and width of functional leaves, total branch number, leaf biomass, flower biomass, and total biomass of plants; low nutrient treatment significantly or marginal significantly decreased total node number, total branch number, root biomass, flower biomass, and total biomass of plants, indicating that both waterlogging and low soil nutrients inhibited growth and reproduction of P. hydropiper. Moreover, the interaction between waterlogging and soil nutrients significantly affected root biomass, showing higher root biomass accumulation at high soil nutrient conditions upon waterlogging. The high-elevation plants had significantly or marginal significantly higher leaf and root biomass than those from low elevation; however, flowering time of the low-elevation plants was significantly earlier, and reproduction allocation was higher than the high-elevation plants, indicating that resource allocation strategy was different between the high- and the low-elevation plants. The results indicate that growth and reproduction of P. hydropiper are inhibited by both waterlogging and soil nutrients, and this species has high adaptability at high soil nutrient conditions to waterlogging; meanwhile, low-elevation plants can adjust their growth and reproductive characteristics to improve their fitness under environmental stress.
    Effects of competition and climate on tree radial growth of Pinus sibirica in Altai Mountains, Xinjiang
    Hanxue Liang Shaowei Jiang Huo-xing Zhu
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0224
    Abstract ( 6 )   Save
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    Aims As an important part of the ecosystems of Central Asia and the whole world, forest growth dynamics of the boreal forest in Altai Mountains can affect global thermal radiation, carbon balance and so on. Therefore, it is crucial to explore the main factors affecting tree radial growth of the boreal forest in Altai Mountains. Methods We selected Pinus sibirica in Kanas National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang as the target tree species, and established tree-ring chronology of P. sibirica. To explore the influence of competition and climate on radial growth of P. sibirica in the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang, we analyzed the relationships among the cumulated basal area increment (BAI), competition index and climate factors at different time intervals by applying various methods like linear mixed effect model and correlation analysis. Important findings The results of the linear mixed effect model showed that: (1) the BAI over the past 30 years can be best predicted by the sun of competitors’ DBH (SDBH). (2) Significant positive correlations were found between the standard chronology, and mean temperature, mean maximum temperature and mean minimum temperature in March. (3) The highest value of the cumulated BAI was observed when air temperature was between 0 and 5 °C, and the competition index was below 100. The lowest value of the cumulative growth occurs when air temperature reaches –10 °C and the competition index exceeds 300. Tree radial growth of subject trees was influenced by both the diameter at breast height (DBH) of the competing trees and the early growing season temperature. Competition plays a more important role in affecting radial growth of P. sibirica than climate factors in this area. Therefore, our results would provide a scientific basis for forest management of P. sibirica in Kanas National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang.
    Different responses of biomass allocation and leaf traits of Dodonaea viscosa to concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus
    Bang-Guo YAN Liangtao Shi Gangcai Liu
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0199
    Abstract ( 47 )   Save
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    Aims The adjustment of leaf traits and biomass allocation is the important way for plants to adapt to environmental changes. Revealing the responses of biomass allocation and leaf traits of Dodonaea viscosa seedlings to nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, is crucial to understand the adaptation strategies of D. viscosa under the changes of nitrogen and phosphorus. Methods Seedlings of D. viscosa were planted under nitrogen concentrations (30, 15, 5, 3 mmol·L-1) and phosphorus concentrations (2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 mmol·L-1) by sand culture. Plant height, base diameter, biomass allocation, leaf traits and their correlations were quantified. Important findings The results showed that high nitrogen concentration (30 mmol·L-1) increased the height, diameter, leaf nitrogen concentration, and biomass accumulation of D. viscosa, and there were no significant differences of the traits under other concentrations (1, 0.5, 0.25 mmol·L-1). Compared with the high nitrogen level, other treatments significantly reduced the biomass accumulation and leaf nitrogen concentration, and significantly increased the root:shoot biomass ratio and nitrogen utilization efficiency. With the increase of phosphorus concentration, the biomass of D. viscosa increased significantly. Low phosphorus concentrations (0.5, 0.25 mmol·L-1) significantly limited the growth of D. viscosa, and the root:shoot biomass ratio and phosphorus utilization efficiency did not change significantly. Low phosphorus conditions increased the specific leaf area and leaf:stem biomass ratio, and decreased leaf dry matter content significantly. Under nitrogen treatment, leaf nitrogen concentration was negatively correlated with the root:shoot biomass ratio, while under phosphorus treatment, leaf nitrogen concentration was positively correlated with specific leaf area. Height, diameter and total biomass of D. viscosa were negatively correlated with root:shoot biomass ratio, and positively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration under the condition of nitrogen treatment, indicating that the adjustment of root:shoot biomass ratio and leaf nitrogen concentration played an important role in adapting to nitrogen limitation; while under the condition of phosphorus treatment, height, diameter and total biomass were negatively correlated with specific leaf area, and positively correlated with leaf dry matter content, indicating that the adjustment of leaf structural traits was of great significance in adapting to changes of phosphorus. Our findings suggest that the biomass allocation, leaf traits and their relationships responded differently to changes in nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effects of nitrogen or phosphorus on plant traits should be discriminated in the future.
    Response of ecosystem multifunctionality to global changes: progresses, problems and prospects
    Hong-Jin ZHANG Wei WANG
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0074
    Abstract ( 206 )   Save
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    Global change has exerted profound impacts on ecosystem functions, such as variations in plant productivity and imbalances in nutrient cycling. Previous studies were mostly focused on the impacts of global change on a single function. However, ecosystems can provide multiple functions simultaneously (namely, ecosystem multifunctionality, EMF), so the evaluation based on a single function is inappropriate to reflect the overall performance of ecosystem multiple functions, due to the trade-offs or synergies that often exist among different functions. And thus this will limit our understanding of the effects of global change on ecosystem functions. Since 2007, Hector and Bagchi have firstly quantified EMF, and then the improvement of EMF quantitative methods has greatly promoted the development of this field. As global change intensified, the impact of global change on EMF has received widespread attention in the recent years. In order to systematically understand the research progress in this field, this paper is performed to conduct a bibliometric analysis from 2007 to 2020 based on the two common literature databases, including CNKI and ISI Web of Science. We briefly described the development of this field, and summarized the impacts of land use change, warming, precipitation change and nitrogen deposition on EMF. Finally, we proposed six directions that require to be noticed in further studies under the scenario of global changes: (1) Make consensus in EMF indices and evaluation method; (2) Consideration on the interactive effects among different factors on EMF; (3) Response of EMF to global changes across various temporal scales; (4) Relationships between multi-dimensional, multi-scale biodiversity and EMF; (5) Relationships between multidiversity and EMF; (6) Relationships between root functional traits and EMF.
    Spatial distribution patterns and association of Picea crassifolia population in Dayekou basin of Qilian Mountains, northwestern China
    feng TA Xian-De LIU Run-Hong LIU MENG Hao-Jun LIU Jian-Quan LIU Xian-DeZHAO Wei-Jun wenmao jing jian MA Xiu-Rong WU Jing-Zhong ZHAO Xue-E MA
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2020, 44 (预发表):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0177
    Abstract ( 117 )   Save
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    Aims The study of the spatial distribution pattern and the association between the different developmental stages of Picea crassifolia populations can reveal the succession patterns of the populations, infer their potential ecological processes or mechanisms, and thus provide guidance for the configuration, planting, forest management and management of the populations. Methods Based on the survey data of 10.2 hm2 P. crassifolia dynamic monitoring plot in Dayekou basin, Qilian Mountains, China. The species composition and diameter structure of the community were analyzed, and the point pattern method is used to analyze the spatial distribution pattern and spatial correlation of P. crassifolia populations at different age stages through univariate pairwise correlation functions and bivariate pairwise correlation functions. Important findings The results showed that: (1) The diameter class structure of P. crassifolia population was in an inverted "J"-shaped distribution, indicating that the population was a growing population and the population was in good natural renewal status. (2) The individuals of four diameter classes in P. crassifolia population were aggregated in a small scale, but as the spatial scale increased, the aggregation intensity gradually weakened and tended to be randomly distributed. Moreover, individuals of smaller diameter classes used to be aggregated, and as the diameter class increased, they also tended to be randomly distributed. (3) The big trees in P. crassifolia population were negatively correlated with other diameter classes within a small scale (< 4 m). As the scale increases, the big trees and young trees showed a positive association and the correlation decreased with increasing scale. However, as the scale increases, big trees show no or weakly negative correlation with small and medium trees. In addition, the spatial association of individuals with similar diameter classes showed positive or no association, and as the gap between individual diameter classes increases, their spatial association changed to independent or negative association. In conclusion, the spatial distribution patterns and association of P. crassifolia population in Dayekou basin of Qilian Mountains varied with the spatial scale and developmental stage, which were the result of the combined effects of the population’s own bioecological characteristics, intraspecies and interspecies relationships, and environmental conditions.

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