Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (4): 333-342.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0032

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Analysis on carbon stock distribution patterns of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi Province

CUI Gao-Yang1, CHEN Yun-Ming2,3,*(), CAO Yang2,3, AN Chun-Chun1   

  1. 1Research Center of Institute of Soil and Water Conservation and Ecological Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Education, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
    2State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
    3Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
  • Received:2014-12-29 Accepted:2015-03-17 Online:2015-04-21 Published:2015-04-01
  • Contact: Yun-Ming CHEN E-mail:ymchen@ms.iswc.ac.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract: <i>Aims</i>

The objective of this study was to understand the distribution patterns of carbon stock in forest ecosystems in Shaanxi Province following the implementation of the ecological restoration project―the Grain for Green―in the 90’s of 20th century for combating the severe soil erosion and other environment problems.

<i>Methods</i>

Based on forest resources inventory data and field measurements, we estimated carbon storage of tree, shrub, herb, litter, and soil layer within each forest ecosystem of Shaanxi Province.

<i>Important findings</i>

Forest ecosystems in Shaanxi Province stored a total of 790.75 Tg C, and the proportion occupied by soil, vegetation and litter carbon were 72.14%, 26.52% and 1.34%, respectively. Carbon storage within Quercus spp. was the highest (44.17%) among all forest types. Given the large proportion of the areas occupied, the young and middle-aged forests accounted for almost half of the total carbon stores in forest ecosystems. The average carbon density of forest ecosystem was 123.70 t·hm-2. Similar to the patterns among carbon pools, carbon density was also highest in soil, lowest in litter, and medium in vegetation for each forest type. Carbon density increased with stand age for natural and planted forest ecosystems, and was higher in the natural forest ecosystems than in the planted forests within the same stand ages. Differences in the spatial patterns between carbon stores and density indicate that carbon storage is related not only to forest quality, but also to forest areas. Therefore we could select tree species with high carbon concentration for reforestation and afforestation, and improve forest management practices to increase carbon sequestration potential, which would be beneficial to mitigation of global climate change.

Key words: carbon stores, forest ecosystem, age class, Quercus spp., sequestration potential

Table 1

Biomass-volume conversion formula for different forest types"

森林类型
Forest type
生物量-蓄积量转换方程
Biomass-volume conversion formula
n R2 参考文献
Reference
冷云杉 Abies fabri and Picea asperata B = 0.4642V + 47.499 13 0.98 Fang et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2000
铁杉 Tsuga chinensis B = 0.4158V + 41.3318 21 0.88 Liu et al., 2000; Fang et al., 2001
落叶松 Larix gmelinii B = 0.967V + 5.7598 8 0.98 Fang et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2000
油松 Pinus tabulaeformis B = 0.7554V + 5.0928 82 0.96 Fang et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2000
华山松 Pinus armandii B = 0.5856V + 18.7435 9 0.90 Liu et al., 2000; Fang et al., 2001
马尾松 Pinus massoniana B = 0.52V 12 0.92 Fang et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2000
其他松类 Other pines and conifer forests B = 0.5168V + 33.2378 16 0.94 Fang et al., 1998, 2001
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata B = 0.3999V + 22.541 56 0.95 Fang et al., 2001
柏木 Cupressus funebris B =0.6129V + 26.1451 11 0.96 Fang et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2000
栎类 Quercus spp. B = 1.3288V - 3.8999 3 1.00 Fang et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2000
桦木 Betula spp. B = 0.9644V + 0.8485 4 0.95 Fang et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2000
硬阔类 Hardwood B = 0.7564V + 8.3103 11 0.97 Fang et al., 1998
杨树 Populus spp. B = 0.4754V + 30.6034 10 0.86 Fang et al., 2001
软阔类 Softwood B = 1.0357V + 8.0591 21 0.83 Fang et al., 2001
阔叶混交林 Mixed broad-leaf forest B = 0.6255V + 91.0013 19 0.86 Fang et al., 1998
针阔混交林
Mixed coniferous and broad-leaf forest
B = 0.8019V + 12.2799 9 0.99 Fang et al., 2001

Table 2

Forest ecosystem carbon density, area, and total stores in Shaanxi Province"

森林类型
Forest type
面积
Area
(100 hm2)
碳密度Carbon density (t·hm-2) 生态系统总碳储量(Tg)
Total forest ecosystem carbon stores
乔木层
Tree layer
灌木层
Shrub layer
草本层
Herb layer
枯落物层
Litter layer
土壤层
Soil layer
森林生态系统
Forest
ecosystem
冷云杉 Abies fabri and Picea asperata 448 59.27 1.72 0.62 3.00 96.18 160.78 7.20
铁杉 Tsuga chinensis 192 63.49 1.84 0.66 3.21 96.87 166.07 3.19
落叶松 Larix gmelinii 128 41.34 0.46 0.43 1.35 92.75 136.33 1.75
油松 Pinus tabulaeformis 5 533 20.47 0.52 0.25 1.88 85.49 108.61 60.09
华山松 Pinus armandii 1 215 29.60 1.14 0.29 1.84 89.39 122.26 14.85
马尾松 Pinus massoniana 1 471 13.59 0.53 0.12 1.00 81.55 96.80 14.24
其他松类 Other pines and conifer forests 96 23.83 0.32 0.05 0.46 87.16 111.81 1.07
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 1 024 21.41 0.62 0.22 1.08 85.98 109.32 11.19
柏木 Cupressus funebris 1 536 19.67 0.30 0.42 1.33 84.98 106.70 16.39
栎类 Quercus spp. 26 420 37.52 1.00 0.28 1.84 91.58 132.22 349.32
桦木 Betula spp. 2 208 45.14 1.83 0.87 3.03 93.34 144.20 31.84
硬阔类 Hardwood 14 483 23.28 0.80 0.72 1.41 86.59 112.81 163.38
杨树 Populus spp. 2 587 27.57 1.38 0.44 0.79 88.41 118.59 30.68
软阔类 Softwood 5 658 32.21 0.95 1.02 1.06 89.31 124.55 70.47
阔叶混交林 Mixed broad-leaf forest 671 69.12 2.20 0.81 3.28 97.67 173.08 11.61
针阔混交林
Mixed coniferous and broad-leaf forest
256 39.73 1.01 0.30 2.02 92.22 135.29 3.46
加权平均值 Weighted average 31.38 0.94 0.48 1.66 89.24 123.70
总计 Total (Tg) 63 926 200.59 (25.36%) 6.00 (0.76%) 3.06 (0.38%) 10.60 (1.35%) 570.49 (72.15%) 790.75 (100%)

Fig. 1

Carbon density (A) and carbon stores (B) in different age groups of planted and natural forest ecosystems in Shaanxi Province. YF, MAF, NAF, MF, OMF refer to young forest, middle-aged forest, near-mature forest, mature forest, and over-mature forest, respectively."

Table 3

Carbon density and stores of different age groups in natural forest ecosystems of Shaanxi Province"

森林类型
Forest type
幼龄林
Young forest
中龄林
Middle-aged forest
近熟林
Near-mature forest
成熟林
Mature forest
过熟林
Over-mature forest
碳密度
C density (t·hm-2)
碳储量
C stores (Tg)
碳密度
C density (t·hm-2)
碳储量
C stores (Tg)
碳密度
C density (t·hm-2)
碳储量
C stores (Tg)
碳密度
C density (t·hm-2)
碳储量
C stores (Tg)
碳密度
C density (t·hm-2)
碳储量
C stores (Tg)
冷云杉 Abies fabri and Picea asperata 128.85 0.41 150.38 1.92 189.48 3.64
铁杉 Tsuga chinensis 170.79 2.19 163.97 0.52 148.98 0.48
落叶松 Larix gmelinii 188.17 0.60
油松 Pinus tabulaeformis 83.06 4.51 106.75 16.04 135.13 6.05 142.66 5.48 162.70 2.60
华山松 Pinus armandii 100.26 0.32 126.62 6.47 121.06 1.55 137.27 1.76
马尾松 Pinus massoniana 87.93 1.69 100.68 6.44
其他松类 Other pines and conifer forests 116.81 0.37 116.77 0.37
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 97.53 0.62 115.60 1.48 108.98 2.09 136.78 0.88
柏木 Cupressus funebris 102.92 3.29 108.84 3.13 116.87 2.62 117.52 3.01
栎类 Quercus spp. 91.06 73.67 129.90 72.73 157.16 64.85 161.54 66.15 156.66 61.13
桦木 Betula spp. 90.50 2.61 133.81 6.42 136.42 6.11 145.59 5.12 176.42 11.29
硬阔类 Hardwood 96.29 14.79 118.78 38.36 126.63 19.83 135.45 33.78 137.55 14.50
杨树 Populus spp. 105.15 1.68 112.17 4.30 117.79 4.52 131.30 3.36 137.38 5.26
软阔类 Softwood 88.06 6.19 110.59 15.17 132.96 20.83 157.64 12.61 168.39 7.00
阔叶混交林 Mixed broad-leaf forest 147.07 1.88 171.48 3.82 174.80 2.80 175.70 1.12 205.50 1.97
针阔混交林
Mixed coniferous and broad-leaf forest
92.96 0.30 99.33 0.32 157.20 2.52
总计 Total 92.29* 111.56 121.86* 177.30 141.99* 132.15 150.11* 137.81 156.72* 108.75

Table 4

Carbon density and stores of different age groups in planted forest ecosystems of Shaanxi Province"

森林类型
Forest type
幼龄林
Young forest
中龄林
Middle-aged forest
近熟林
Near-mature forest
成熟林
Mature forest
过熟林 Over-mature forest
碳密度
C density (t·hm-2)
碳储量
C stores (Tg)
碳密度
C density (t·hm-2)
碳储量
C stores (Tg)
碳密度
C density (t·hm-2)
碳储量
C stores (Tg)
碳密度
C density (t·hm-2)
碳储量
C stores (Tg)
碳密度
C density (t·hm-2)
碳储量
C stores (Tg)
冷云杉 Abies fabri and Picea asperata 121.15 0.78 131.09 0.42
落叶松 Larix gmelinii 75.58 0.24 132.60 0.85
油松 Pinus tabulaeformis 78.20 6.51 105.78 16.91 133.72 0.86
华山松 Pinus armandii 94.16 0.60 116.97 4.12
马尾松 Pinus massoniana 93.30 2.39 96.49 3.70
其他松类 Other pines and conifer forests 101.13 0.32
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 93.89 1.80 106.94 2.40 123.79 0.79 113.10 0.72 110.67 0.35
柏木 Cupressus funebris 93.50 3.29 102.21 0.98
栎类 Quercus spp. 93.27 1.49
桦木 Betula spp.
硬阔类 Hardwood 77.42 23.75 92.62 6.81 103.03 3.30 101.29 4.54 124.46 0.40
杨树 Populus spp. 105.75 3.36 114.94 2.56 105.51 0.34 143.46 0.46 113.92 4.74
软阔类 Softwood 73.51 4.23 98.61 1.26 120.72 1.16
阔叶混交林 Mixed broad-leaf forest
针阔混交林
Mixed coniferous and broad-leaf forest
83.24 0.27
总计 Total 75.88* 47.55 103.85* 41.50 111.83* 6.44 105.16* 5.72 114.41* 5.49

Fig. 2

Spatial distribution patterns of forest ecosystem carbon density (left) and carbon stores (right) in Shaanxi Province."

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[1] Hu Shi-yi. Lipoid Bodies in Plant Tissues[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(04): 49 -51 .
[2] CHENG Hong-Yan. Introduction of State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(04): 78 .
[3] Liu Dong-zhuo and Li Lan. The Karyotype Analysis of Solanum pseudocapsicum[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1992, 9(03): 50 .
[4] WANG Bao-Shan;LI De-Quan;ZHAO Shi-Jie;MENG Qing-Wei and ZOU Qi. Effects of Iso-osmotic NaCl and KCl Stress on Growth and Gas Exchange of Sorghum Seedlings[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(04): 449 -453 .
[5] LI Yao-Dong WEI Yu-Ning XU Ben-Mei. Study on the ABA Content and SOD Activity in Ancient Lotus and Modern Lotus Seeds[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2000, 17(05): 439 -442 .
[6] LI Zhong-Kui HU Hong-Jun LI Ye-Guang. Advances in Molecular Phylogenetic Relationship of Volvocales[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2002, 19(04): 419 -424 .
[7] WANG Ting SU Ying-Juan ZHU Jian-Ming HUANG Chao LI Xue-Yan. PCR_RFLP Analysis of rbc L Genes in Taxaceae and Related Taxa[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2001, 18(06): 714 -721 .
[8] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 51 .
[9] Dong Shu-ting, Hu Chang-hao, Yue Shou-song, Wang Qun-ying, Gao Rong-qi, Pan Zi-long. The Characteristics of Canopy Photosynthesis of Summer Corn (Zea mays) and its Relation with Canopy Structure and Ecological Conditions[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1992, 16(4): 372 -378 .
[10] YANG Wei, YE Qi-Gang, LI Zuo-Zhou, HUANG Hong-Wen. GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAITS AND LOCAL ADAPTABILITY OF REMNANT POPULATIONS OF ISOETES SINENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION AND GENETIC REINFORCEMENT[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2008, 32(1): 143 -151 .