Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 208-216.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0295

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Spatial variations of community functional traits at different successional stages in temperate forests of Changbai Mountains, Northeast China

HAO Shu-Jun,LI Xiao-Yu,HOU Man-Man,ZHAO Xiu-Hai()   

  1. Research Center of Forest Management Engineering of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 10083, China
  • Received:2018-11-28 Revised:2019-03-05 Online:2019-05-30 Published:2019-03-20
  • Contact: ZHAO Xiu-Hai E-mail:zhaoxh@bjfu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Key R&D Program of China(2017YFC0504005);The National Natural Science Foundation of China(31670643)

Abstract:

Aims The community assembly mechanisms are among the focal topics in ecological studies. In Changbai Mountains Nature Reserve, there is an intact primary broadleaved-Korean pine forest ecosystem. With increasing loss of species diversity in recent years, study that explores the community assembly mechanisms in this region is particularly important.


Methods This study was conducted in three large permanent plots, each of the size 5.2 hm 2, along suessional stages (secondary poplar and birch mixed forest, PBF; secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest, CBF; and primary Tilia amurensis-Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, TKF) in Changbai Mountains. Six functional traits of major tree species were measured, including leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf nitrogen content, leaf phosphorus content, and maximum tree height. Changes in the spatial values of community traints were analyzed at different spatial scales (5 m × 5 m, 10 m × 10 m, 20 m × 20 m, 30 m × 30 m, 40 m × 40 m, 50 m × 50 m and 60 m × 60 m). By comparing the observed values with expected values of null models, the community assembly mechanisms in temperate forests of Changbai Mountains were explored.


Important findings Results show that the size of species pool has an important impact on the outcome; in a larger species pool, the environmental filtration has a significant impact. At the plot level and for early and intermediate stages of succession, the observed spatial values of community traits do not significantly differ from the expected values. At the late successional stage, the observed spatial values of community traits were greater than the expected values. The analysis of multiple community functional diversity indices shows that the combined processes of habitat filtring and competitive exclusion are the main determinants of the species composition of the climax community in this region. In the early successional stage, large numbers of species are immigrated, and there are strong resource competitions among the species within a community. With progressing succession, some species are excluded, species maintained in the community show significant niche differentiations, and competition is the main mechanism species coexistence.

Key words: community assembly, functional trait, trait space, spatial scale

Fig. 1

Location of secondary poplar and birch mixed forest (PBF), secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest (CBF), primary Tilia amurensis-Pinus koraiensis mixed forest (TKF) in Changbai Mountains."

Table 1

Summary of permanent forest plots in Changbai Mountains"

林分类型
Forest type
样地面积
Plot area (hm2)
经纬度
Longitude & latitude
平均海拔
Average elevation (m)
物种数量
Species number
总胸高断面积
Total basal area (m2)
次生杨桦林 PBF 5.2 (260 m × 200 m) 42.32° N, 128.13° E 893 69 24.74
次生针阔混交林 CBF 5.2 (260 m × 200 m) 42.35° N, 128.13° E 810 66 32.07
原始椴树红松林 TKF 5.2 (260 m × 200 m) 42.23° N, 128.08° E 1 023 22 56.64

Table 2

Functional traits and ecological meaning"

功能性状 Functional trait 单位 Unit 生态学意义 Ecological meaning
叶面积
Leaf area
mm2 代表叶片对光的捕获能力, 与环境胁迫和干扰下的生态策略有关
Represents the ability to capture light; linked to ecological strategy with respect to environmental
stress and disturbances
比叶面积
Specific leaf area
mm2·mg-1 与叶片光合能力正相关, 与叶片寿命负相关
Positively related to photosynthetic rate and negatively to leaf longevity
叶片厚度 Leaf thickness mm 代表植物抗干扰和高投入的能力 Represents the ability to defy changes and high investment
叶氮含量
Leaf nitrogen concentration
mg·g-1 与光合作用蛋白和最大光合速率有关
Related to the proteins in photosynthetic machinery and maximum photosynthetic rate
叶磷含量
Leaf phosphorus concentration
mg·g-1 与植物最大光合速率以及营养级质量有关
Related to maximum photosynthetic rate and high nutritional quality in food webs
最大树高
Maximum tree height
m 代表植株在光垂直梯度所处的位置及竞争能力
Associated with position of the species in the vertical light gradient of plants and competitiveness

Fig. 2

The weighted average (CWM) of individual functional traits at different successional stages in temperate forests of Changbai Mountains. PBF, secondary poplar and birch mixed forest; CBF, secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest; TKF, primary Tilia amurensis-Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. The box plots show the results of repeated sampling for 20 times. The black triangle is values at plot level; different lowercase letters designate the results of multiple comparisons, and it indicate significant difference (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 3

Trends in functional diversity at different successional stages in temperate forests of Changbai Mountains. PBF, secondary poplar and birch mixed forest; CBF, secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest; TKF, primary Tilia amurensis-Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. FEve, functional uniformity; FDiv, functional divergence; FDis, functional dispersion; RaoQ, functional entropy index. The box plots show the results of repeated sampling for 20 times. The black triangle is the value at plot level; different lowercase letters show the results of multiple comparisons, and it indicate significant difference (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 4

Changes in the spatial value of community traits at different succession stages with spatial scale in temperate forests of Changbai Mountains. A, D, Secondary poplar forest. B, E, Secondary coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest. C, F, Primary Tilia amurensis-Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. A, B, C, Species pool 1. D, E, F, Species pool 2. SES, standardized effect size. ***, p < 0.01, it indicates that there is a significant difference between the eigenspace observations and the zero model simulation values."

[1] Baraloto C, Hardy OJ, Paine CT, Dexter KG, Cruaud C, Dunning LT, Chave J ( 2012). Using functional traits and phylogenetic trees to examine the assembly of tropical tree communities. Journal of Ecology, 100, 690-701.
[2] Cornelissen JHC, Lavorel S, Garnier E, Díaz S, Buchmann N, Gurvich DE ( 2003). A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany, 51, 335-380.
[3] Cornwell WK, Schwilk DW, Ackerly DD ( 2006). A trait-based test for habitat filtering: Convex hull volume. Ecology, 87, 1465-1471.
[4] Diamond JM ( 1975). Assembly of species communities. In: Cody ML, Diamond JM eds. Ecology & Evolution of Communities. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, USA.
[5] Díaz S, Quétier F, Cáceres DM, Trainor SF, Pérez-‌Harguindeguy N, Bret-Harte MS, Finegan B, Peña-Claros M, Poorter L ( 2011). Linking functional diversity and social actor strategies in a framework for interdisciplinary analysis of nature’s benefits to society. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 895-902.
[6] Eviner VT, Chapin III FS ( 2003). Functional matrix: A conceptual framework for predicting multiple plant effects on ecosystem processes. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 455-485.
[7] Fang S, Yuan ZQ, Lin F, Ye J, Hao ZQ, Wang XG ( 2014). Functional and phylogenetic structures of woody plants in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, Jilin, China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 59, 2342-2348.
[ 房帅, 原作强, 蔺菲, 叶吉, 郝占庆, 王绪高 ( 2014). 长白山阔叶红松林木本植物系统发育与功能性状结构. 科学通报, 59, 2342-2348.]
[8] Grime JP ( 2006). Trait convergence and trait divergence in herbaceous plant communities: Mechanisms and consequences. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17, 255-260.
[9] Herben T, Goldberg DE ( 2014). Community assembly by limiting similarity vs. competitive hierarchies: Testing the consequences of dispersion of individual traits. Journal of Ecology, 102, 156-166.
[10] Hou MM, Li XY, Wang JW, Liu S, Zhao XH ( 2017). Phylogenetic development and functional structures during successional stages of conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest communities in Changbai Mountains, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 37, 7503-7513.
[ 侯嫚嫚, 李晓宇, 王均伟, 刘帅, 赵秀海 ( 2017). 长白山针阔混交林不同演替阶段群落系统发育和功能性状结构. 生态学报, 37, 7503-7513.]
[11] Hutchinson GE ( 1957). Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposiaon Quantitative Biology, 22, 415-427.
[12] Hutchinson GE ( 1978). An Introduction to Population Ecology. Yale University Press, New Haven.
[13] Kraft N, Ackerly DD ( 2014). The assembly of plant communities. In: Monson RK ed. The Plant Sciences—Ecology and the Environment. Springer, Berlin. 67-88.
[14] Kraft NJ, Valencia R, Ackerly DD ( 2008). Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest. Science, 322, 580-582.
[15] Laliberté E, Legendre P ( 2010). A distance-based framework for measuring functional diversity from multiple traits. Ecology, 91, 299-305.
[16] Lavorel S, Grigulis K, McIntyre S, Williams NS, Garden D, Dorrough J, Berman S, Quétier F, Thébault A, Bonis A ( 2008). Assessing functional diversity in the field-‌methodology matters! Functional Ecology, 22, 134-147.
[17] Lessard JP, Belmaker J, Myers JA, Chase JM, Rahbek C ( 2012 a). Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27, 600-607.
[18] Lessard JP, Borregaard MK, Fordyce JA, Rahbek C, Weiser MD, Dunn RR, Sanders NJ ( 2012 b). Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities. Proceedings Biological Sciences, 279, 266-274.
[19] Li XY, Liao JX, Hou MM, Fan XH ( 2016). Multi-scale analysis on community phylogenetic structure of secondary Populus davidiana-Betula platyphylla forest in Changbai Mountains, northeastern China. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 38(12), 14-20.
[ 李晓宇, 廖嘉星, 侯嫚嫚, 范秀华 ( 2016). 不同尺度下长白山次生杨桦林群落系统发育结构研究. 北京林业大学报, 38(12), 14-20.]
[20] Li Y, Shipley B, Price JN, Dantas VDL, Tamme R, Westoby M, Laughlin DC ( 2017). Habitat filtering determines the functional niche occupancy of plant communities worldwide. Journal of Ecology, 106, 1001-1009.
[21] Litvak MK, Hansell RI ( 1990). A community perspective on the multi-dimensional niche. Journal of Animal Ecology, 59, 931-940.
[22] Lohbeck M, Poorter L, Martínez-Ramos M, Bongers F ( 2015). Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession. Ecology, 96, 1242-1252.
[23] Mason NW, de Bello F, Doležal J, Lepš J ( 2011). Niche overlap reveals the effects of competition, disturbance and contrasting assembly processes in experimental grassland communities. Journal of Ecology, 99, 788-796.
[24] Mason NW, Mouillot D, Lee WG, Wilson JB ( 2005). Functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence: The primary components of functional diversity. Oikos, 111, 112-118.
[25] McGill BJ, Enquist BJ, Weiher E, Westoby M ( 2006). Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 178-185.
[26] Mouchet MA, Villéger S, Mason NW, Mouillot D ( 2010). Functional diversity measures: An overview of their redundancy and their ability to discriminate community assembly rules. Functional Ecology, 24, 867-876.
[27] Mouillot D, Stubbs W, Faure M, Dumay O, Tomasini JA, Wilson JB, Do Chi T ( 2005). Niche overlap estimates based on quantitative functional traits: A new family of non-parametric indices. Oecologia, 145, 345-353.
[28] Ostertag R, Warman L, Cordell S, Vitousek PM ( 2015). Using plant functional traits to restore Hawaiian rainforest. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52, 805-809.
[29] Rosenfeld JS ( 2002). Functional redundancy in ecology and conservation. Oikos, 98, 156-162
[30] Satdichanh M, Millet J, Heinimann A, Nanthavong K, Harrison RD ( 2015). Using plant functional traits and phylogenies to understand patterns of plant community assembly in a seasonal tropical forest in Lao PDR. PLOS ONE, 10, e0130151. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130151.
[31] Song YT, Wang P, Zhou DW ( 2011). Methods of measuring plant community functional diversity. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 30, 2053-2059.
[ 宋彦涛, 王平, 周道玮 ( 2011). 植物群落功能多样性计算方法, 生态学杂志, 30, 2053-2059.]
[32] Stubbs WJ, Wilson JB ( 2004). Evidence for limiting similarity in a sand dune community. Journal of Ecology, 92, 557-567.
[33] Suterine M, Edwards PJ ( 2013). Convergent succession of plant communities is linked to species’ functional traits. Perspectives in Plant Ecology,Evolution and Systematics, 15, 217-225.
[34] Swenson NG ( 2013). The assembly of tropical tree communities—The advances and shortcomings of phylogenetic and functional trait analyses. Ecography, 36, 264-276.
[35] Swenson NG, Weiser MD ( 2014). On the packing and filling of functional space in eastern North American tree assemblages. Ecography, 37, 1056-1062.
[36] Villéger S, Mason NW, Mouillot D ( 2008). New multidimensional functional diversity indices for a multifaceted framework in functional ecology. Ecology, 89, 2290-2301.
[37] Wang SP, Tang ZY, Qiao XJ, Shen ZH, Wang XP, Zheng CY, Fang JY ( 2013). The influence of species pools and local processes on the community structure: A test case with woody plant communities in China’s mountains. Ecography, 35, 1168-1175.
[38] Webb CO, Ackerly DD, McPeek MA, Donoghue MJ ( 2002). Phylogenies and community ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 475-505.
[39] Weiher E, Clarke GP, Keddy PA ( 1998). Community assembly rules, morphological dispersion, and the coexistence of plant species. Oikos, 81, 309-322.
[40] Weiher E, Freund D, Bunton T, Stefanski A, Lee T, Bentivenga S ( 2011). Advances, challenges and a developing synthesis of ecological community assembly theory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 366, 2403-2413.
[41] Zhou XG, Lu WK, Ye D, Wen YG ( 2014). Assembly mechanism forest community based on phylogeny and functional traits. Guangxi Science, 21, 525-533.
[ 周晓果, 卢文科, 叶铎, 温远光 ( 2014). 基于系统发育和功能性状的森林群落构建机制. 广西科学, 21, 525-533.]
[1] TANG Li-Li,ZHANG Mei,ZHAO Xiang-Lin,KANG Mu-Yi,LIU Hong-Yan,GAO Xian-Ming,YANG Tong,ZHENG Pu-Fan,SHI Fu-Chen. Species distribution and community assembly rules of Juglans mandshurica in North China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(9): 753-761.
[2] XU Jin-Shi,CHAI Yong-Fu,LIU Xiao,YUE Ming,GUO Yao-Xin,KANG Mu-Yi,LIU Quan-Ru,ZHENG Cheng-Yang,JI Cheng-Jun,YAN Ming,ZHANG Feng,GAO Xian-Ming,WANG Ren-Qing,SHI Fu-Chen,ZHANG Qin-Di,WANG Mao. Community assembly, diversity patterns and distributions of broad-leaved forests in North China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(9): 732-741.
[3] SHI Jing-Jing,ZHAO Ming-Fei,WANG Yu-Hang,XUE Feng,KANG Mu-Yi,JIANG Yuan. Community assembly of herbaceous layer of the planted forests in the central Loess Plateau, China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(9): 834-842.
[4] WU Pan,PENG Xi-Qiang,YANG Shu-Ren,GAO Ya-Nan,BAI Feng-Hua,YI Shi-Jie,DU Ning,GUO Wei-Hua. Spatial distribution patterns and correlation of Tamarix chinensis population in coastal wetlands of Shandong, China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(9): 817-824.
[5] CHAI Yong-Fu,XU Jin-Shi,LIU Hong-Yan,LIU Quan-Ru,ZHENG Cheng-Yang,KANG Mu-Yi,LIANG Cun-Zhu,WANG Ren-Qing,GAO Xian-Ming,ZHANG Feng,SHI Fu-Chen,LIU Xiao,YUE Ming. Species composition and phylogenetic structure of major shrublands in North China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(9): 793-805.
[6] FU Yi-Wen, TIAN Da-Shuan, WANG Jin-Song, NIU Shu-Li, ZHAO Ken-Tian. Patterns and affecting factors of nitrogen use efficiency of plant leaves and roots in Nei Mongol and Qinghai-Xizang Plateau grasslands [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(7): 566-575.
[7] Gu Hanjiao, Zhang Cancan, Wang Jinsong, Shi Xuewen, Xia Ruixue, Liu Bin, Chen Fusheng, Bu Wensheng. Variation in basic morphological and functional traits of Chinese bamboo [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 585-594.
[8] Gui Xujun, Lian Juyu, Zhang Ruyun, Li Yanpeng, Shen Hao, Ni Yunlong, Ye Wanhui. Vertical structure and its biodiversity in a subtropical evergreen broad- leaved forest at Dinghushan in Guangdong Province, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 619-629.
[9] ZHAO Dan-Dan, MA Hong-Yuan, LI Yang, WEI Ji-Ping, WANG Zhi-Chun. Effects of water and nutrient additions on functional traits and aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(6): 501-511.
[10] Xie Lihong,Huang Qingyang,Cao Hongjie,Yang Fan,Wang Jifeng,Ni Hongwei. Leaf functional traits of Acer mono in Wudalianchi Volcano, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(3): 286-296.
[11] CHENG Yi-Kang, ZHANG Hui, WANG Xu, LONG Wen-Xing, LI Chao, FANG Yan-Shan, FU Ming-Qi, ZHU Kong-Xin. Effects of functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity on the tropical cloud forest community assembly [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(3): 217-226.
[12] Ruyun Zhang,Yanpeng Li,Yunlong Ni,Xujun Gui,Juyu Lian,Wanhui Ye. Intraspecific variation of leaf functional traits along the vertical layer in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of Dinghushan [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(12): 1279-1290.
[13] Zhang Tiantian, Wang Xuan, Ren Haibao, Yu Jianping, Jin Yi, Qian Haiyuan, Song Xiaoyou, Ma Keping, Yu Mingjian. A comparative study on the community characteristics of secondary and old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forests in Gutianshan, Zhejiang Province [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(10): 1069-1080.
[14] LIANG Shi-Chu, LIU Run-Hong, RONG Chun-Yan, CHANG Bin, JIANG Yong. Variation and correlation of plant functional traits in the riparian zone of the Lijiang River, Guilin, Southwest China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(1): 16-26.
[15] Weng Changlu,Zhang Tiantian,Wu Donghao,Chen Shengwen,Jin Yi,Ren Haibao,Yu Mingjian,Luo Yuanyuan. Drivers and patterns of α- and β-diversity in ten main forest community types in Gutianshan, eastern China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 33-41.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Yang Ying-gen;Zhang Li-jun and Li yu. Studies on the Postharvest Physiology properties of Peach Fruits[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(04): 47 -49 .
[2] Zhou Shi-gong. Applications of Lanthanum in Botanical Research[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1992, 9(02): 26 -29 .
[3] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1996, 13(专辑): 105 .
[4] 杜维广 王彬如 谭克辉 郝迺斌. An Approach to the Breeding of Soybean with High Photosynthetic Efficiency[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1984, 2(23): 7 -11 .
[5] ZHAO Yun-Yun ZHOU Xiao-Mei YANG Cai. Production of Hybrid F1 Between Avena magna and Avena nuda and It''s Identification[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(03): 302 -306 .
[6] . Professor Jiayang Li, a Plant Molecular Genetist[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(03): 370 -372 .
[7] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1996, 13(专辑): 100 -101 .
[8] Qiong Jiang, Youning Wang, Lixiang Wang, Zhengxi Sun, Xia Li. Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR Analysis in Soybean Root Tissue under Salt Stress[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2015, 50(6): 754 -764 .
[9] MA Ke-Ming. Advances of the Study on Species Abundance Pattern[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2003, 27(3): 412 -426 .
[10] ZHANG Zhi-Meng, WAN Shu-Bo, NING Tang-Yuan, DAI Liang-Xiang. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LEVEL ON NITROGEN METABOLISM AND CORRELATING ENZYME ACTIVITY IN PEANUT[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2008, 32(6): 1407 -1416 .