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Table of Content
    Volume 34 Issue 8
    01 August 2010

    The landscape of desert riparian forest under water diversion in autumn in the Lower Tarim River, China, where MA et al. investigated the response of sap flow in Populus euphratica to changes in groundwater depth (Pages 915923 of this issu

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    Research Articles
    Characteristics of woody plant regeneration in karren-habitats successional plant communities in Yunnan Shilin karst area of China
    YU Xiao-Ya, LI Yu-Hui
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  889-897.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.001
    Abstract ( 2082 )   PDF (568KB) ( 2034 )   Save
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    Aims Degraded karst ecosystems appear around the world and include the European Dinaric Karst and the South China Karst. The relationship between karst habitats and biodiversity and response to disturbance are essential for karst vegetation succession. Our objective was to study woody plant regeneration in different successional stages in karren-habitats of Yunnan Shilin (Stone forest) Geopark, China. Methods Based on relationships among karrens, soils and plants, we divided karren-habitats into five types: solution corridors; solution wells or shafts; kluft karren; deep solution pits; and solution rock debris. We sampled seedlings and sprouts of woody species in zonal forest, secondary forest, shrubland, shrub tussock and rocky-desertified grassland that encompass succession in karst plant communities. The Shannon-Wiener, Pielou, Simpson and Margalef diversity indices were calculated. Important findings The length and width of each karren-habitat was different and the percentage of karren- habitat changed within the five communities and with disturbance intensity. The fruiting species and number of seedlings decreased with karst vegetation degradation, and the number of sprouts reached a maximum in shrubland and decreased respectively toward the zonal vegetation and rocky-desertified grassland. The Shannon- Wiener and Pielou indices for sprouts in the karren-habitat background communities decreased with plant community degradation, and the Simpson index increased. The Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indices for seedlings were highest in shrubland. The seedlings and sprouts in the five kinds of karren-habitats had different values of biodiversity depending on the succession stage. It is inferred that plants of different successional stages have different regeneration strategies. Sprouting plays an important role in the early stages, and seeding is more important toward the zonal plant community. This is partly because some karren-habitats have remains such as stumps and roots of some species that can repeatedly sprout with continuous disturbance. After the disturbance stops, these sprouts can mature and set seed and seedling regeneration can play a major role towards the middle and late stages of succession. The different karren-habitats play different roles in biodiversity conservation and natural restoration of karst plant communities during succession.
    Drought stress reduces the carbon accumulation of the Leymus chinensis steppe in Inner Mongolia, China
    HAO Yan-Bin, WANG Yan-Fen, CUI Xiao-Yong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  898-906.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.002
    Abstract ( 2097 )   PDF (688KB) ( 1662 )   Save
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    Aims Droughts are common in arid and semiarid regions and affect the capacity of carbon sequestration of grassland ecosystems by influencing the process of ecosystem carbon cycling. We analyzed the continuous measurements of ecosystem CO2 fluxes during three growing seasons (May–September) over a Leymus chinensis steppe in Inner Mongolia in order to examine the effect of drought stress on carbon accumulation of this grassland ecosystem. Methods We used the eddy covariance technique to measure CO2 fluxes during the 2004–2006 growing seasons. Only 126 and 215 mm precipitation fell during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons, respectively, far less than normal (in 2004, 364 mm); therefore, the steppe was in an extreme drought condition. Important findings Maxima for gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) were 4.89 and 1.99 g C·m–2·d–1, respectively, in the 2004 growing season (normal year). However, in drought years, GPP and Re were 1.53–3.01 and 1.38–1.77 g C·m–2·d–1, respectively. GPP and Re in the drought years decreased by 68% and 11%, respectively, compared with the normal year. Accumulated GPP and Re were 294 and 180 g C·m–2, respectively, during the growing season in 2004 and 102–123 and 132–158 g C·m–2, respectively, in drought years. Accumulated GPP and Re decreased 58%–65% and 12%–27%, respectively, in drought years compared with those of the normal year. The slope of the curve in the sensitivity for Re to Ts (Vant’Hoff type) reached its maximum at θ = 0.16–0.17 m3·m–3; below or above this value of θ, the sensitivity of Re to Ts decreases. GPP and Re decline under drought stress conditions, with GPP having a larger decline. Long-term and continuous drought reduced C-accumulation and resulted in the steppe ecosystem switching from a carbon sink in typical years to a carbon source in drought years.
    Productivity responses of different functional groups to litter addition in typical grassland of Inner Mongolia
    WANG Jing, ZHAO Meng-Li, Walter WILLMS, WANG Zhong-Wu, HAN Guo-Dong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  907-914.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.003
    Abstract ( 1803 )   PDF (538KB) ( 1052 )   Save
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    Aims Much research has been done on litter in forest ecosystems, but little has been done in grassland ecosystems, although litter plays an important role in grasslands. Our objectives were to determine how litter affects aboveground biomass and productivity of different functional groups and whether litter addition has a positive or negative effect in typical grassland. Methods We added litter to typical grassland after frost in October 2002. Then we sampled peak standing crop in August from 2003 to 2007. We determined productivity by species by clipping the vegetation in two 20 cm × 50 cm quadrates. SAS 9.0 was used to analyze the data. Important findings Litter addition significantly increased aboveground biomass, especially in the first year after treatment; however, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in productivity among litter addition treatments were found in the following years. Biomass was significantly different among years (p < 0.001). Effects of litter addition on each functional group were not significant (p > 0.05). PCA analysis of each functional group in different years showed that productivity depended on the competition and compensation effect between perennial bunch grasses and perennial forbs. With greater amounts of litter, the competition effect and the correlation of these two functional groups decreased.
    Response of sap flow in Populus euphratica to changes in groundwater depth in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River of northwestern China
    MA Jian-Xin, CHEN Ya-Ning, LI Wei-Hong, HUANG Xiang, ZHU Cheng-Gang, MA Xiao-Dong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  915-923.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.004
    Abstract ( 1907 )   PDF (483KB) ( 1483 )   Save
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    Aims Our aims were to analyze the relationship between sap flow in Populus euphratica and groundwater depth,and to determine the groundwater depth that can maintain growth in P. euphratica. Methods Sap flow flux densities of stems of P. euphratica growing in the middle and lower reachs of the Tarim River were measured using stem heat pulse techniques in August 2008. Meteorological factors were monitored by a recording weather station. Groundwater depth data were collected from monitoring wells by the conductance method. Important findings Sap flow flux density decreased with increased groundwater depth (correlation coefficient = –0.887). When the groundwater depth dropped to 4.5–5 m, sap flow flux density in P. euphratica was abnormal. Soil salt was not the main factor influencing sap flow in P. euphratica. Data collected from 74 vegetation plots show that cover, density and frequency decrease when the groundwater depth dropped to 4–6 m. We conclude that in order to restore P. euphratica and its ecosystem in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River, the groundwater depth must be kept at a minimum of 4.5 m.
    Characteristics of spatial variations in xylem sap flow in urban greening tree species Pinus tabulaeformis, Cedrus deodara and Robinia pseudoacacia in Beijing, China
    WANG Hua, 欧Yang-Zhi-Yun , ZHENG Hua, WANG Xiao-Ke, NI Yong-Ming, REN Yu-Fen
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  924-937.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.005
    Abstract ( 1850 )   PDF (919KB) ( 1158 )   Save
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    Aims Water consumption of urban plants with multiple ecological effects is important. However, large errors may occur when sap flow is scaled from single point measurement to whole tree without knowledge of spatial sap flow profiles in the trunk. Our objective was to investigate the spatial variation of sap flux density (Js) and its possible cause to estimate whole-tree water use more precisely. Methods Spatial patterns of sap flux density in the sapwood of Pinus tabulaeformis, Cedrus deodara and Robinia pseudoacacia were investigated with thermal dissipation probe from June to November 2008 in Beijing, China. Important findings Axial variation was substantial. Due to greater exposure to sun in the south aspect, the anatomy of the xylem structure and lower branch height, there was an apparent relationship between sap flux density and aspect in P. tabulaeformis and C. deodara, but no apparent relationship in R. pseudoacacia. Hourly Js over 24 h at different aspects were highly correlated; therefore, mean Js may be accurately estimated based on measurement obtained on one aspect. Js showed marked radial variation within the trunk. Js at different depths show similar diurnal pattern, while Js at deeper depth lagged behind and was more sensitive to evaporative demand than the shallower depth. Hourly Js over 24 h at different depths were highly correlated, so Js at a particular depth could be extrapolated as a multiple of Js at the depth of 15 mm. However, depth profiles of Js differed among aspects within a tree. Js at the deeper depth on the south aspect of C. deodara was greater and had no time lag compared to other aspects. In conclusion, sap flux density on the north side at depths of 15 and 70 mm could give an accurate estimation of whole-tree transpiration.
    Analysis of architecture and functions of fine roots of five subtropical tree species in Huitong, Hunan Province, China
    LIU Jia, XIANG Wen-Hua, XU Xiao, CHEN Rui, TIAN Da-Lun, PENG Chang-Hui, FANG Xi
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  938-945.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.006
    Abstract ( 2550 )   PDF (572KB) ( 1803 )   Save
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    Aims Our objectives were to examine: 1) fine root architecture among five subtropical tree species in southern China; 2) nutrient concentrations across different branch orders and 3) the relationship between root architecture and nutrient exploration strategy. Methods Intact fine root segments of Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Liquidambar formosana, Alniphyllum fortunei, Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana were collected by excavation in Huitong County, Hunan Province, China. Individual roots were dissected according to the branching order, starting from the distal end of the root system that was numbered as the first order and then increasing sequentially with each branch from the first order to higher order roots. Following dissection, fine root samples were scanned by the Win-RHIZO system to analyze specific root length (SRL), specific root surface area (SRA), diameter, tips and forks. Fine root samples were then oven-dried at 85 °C to a constant weight to determine weight. The contents of C and N in a given order were determined using the wet combustion and the semimicro-Kjeldahl methods, respectively. Important findings The SRL and SRA decreased and root diameter increased from the first to third order roots for all species. Significant differences among species were also observed for fine root morphology and architecture; the highest SRL (31.45 m·g–1) of the first order roots was observed for L. formosana and the lowest SRL (16.34 m·g–1) was observed for Cunninghamia lanceolata. The highest SRA was found in the first and the second order roots of P. massoniana; the first order roots of Cunninghamia lanceolata and the second order roots of Cyclobalanopsis glauca had the lowest The SRA. Cunninghamia lanceolata had the largest fine root diameter, and A. fortunei had the smallest. No significant differences were found for the number of fine root tips, but there were large differences for number of forks among species. Apart from Cunninghamia lanceolata and L. formosana, C content in fine roots has been observed to significantly increase as root order increased. The C/N ratio increased from low to high root order, and N content decreased. C content was highest in Cunninghamia lanceolata and lowest in A. fortunei. No significant differences were found among the other species. N content was highest in A. fortunei and lowest in P. massoniana. The C/N ratio was highest in P. massoniana and lowest in A. fortunei.
    Mortality of woody plants in tropical monsoon rainforests of Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China
    LIU Wan-De, ZANG Run-Guo, DING Yi, ZHANG Wei-Yin, SU Jian-Rong, YANG Min, CAI Du-Lei, LI Ru-Cai
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  946-956.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.007
    Abstract ( 2047 )   PDF (529KB) ( 1308 )   Save
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    Aims We examined the mortality of woody plants in different functional groups, different diameter classes and different site conditions to understand the status and variation of woody plant mortality in the tropical monsoon rainforest (TMRF) communities on Hainan Island. Methods We established 15 plots (50 m × 50 m) in old-growth TMRF in Bawangling Nature Reserve of Hainan Island. Each plot was divided into 10 m × 10 m subplots to measure the height, diameter at breast height (DBH) of individuals with DBH ≥ 1.0 cm and live or dead status by species. Site conditions, such as slope gradient, slope aspect, slope position and distance to the rivers were recorded. We categorized woody plants into different functional groups, and stems into different diameter classes. Important findings Overall mortality rate of woody plants ranged from 3.42% to 18.71% (mean of 7.60%). The mortality rate was higher for trees than shrubs, for deciduous species than evergreen species and for unarmed species than spinescent species. The mortality rate of the TMRF community was > 10% for 5–30 cm DBH and was highest for 5–10 cm DBH. Within the 1–5 cm same diameter class, mortality of deciduous species was higher than evergreen species, and no significant differences were found in other diameter classes. No significant difference was found between mortality of spinescent and unarmed species in any diameter class. Tree mortality rate and distance to the rivers were directly correlated. Mortalities of deciduous species and unarmed species were correlated with slope position, with the mortality rates on upper slope position higher than at mid-slope position. The closest relationships were between mortality rate and community habitats, and drought was one of important causes of mortality.
    Wind-dispersed traits of cypselas in ten Asteraceae alien invasive species
    HAO Jian-Hua, QIANG Sheng, DU Kang-Ning, GAO Yuan-Xing
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  957-965.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.008
    Abstract ( 1995 )   PDF (1093KB) ( 1106 )   Save
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    Aims Wind dispersal of cypsela is the prevailing natural dispersal pattern in Asteraceae alien invasive species, but few studies have addressed the relationship between the characteristics of cypsela adapted to wind-dispersal and invasiveness. Our objective is to study the relationship between wind-dispersal traits and invasiveness to provide insight into invasion mechanisms and control of alien invasive species. Methods We selected ten wind-dispersed Asteraceae invasive species with cypselas, observed morphological traits of cypsela such as pappus number, pappus length, barb number on pappus and 1000-grain weight of cypsela and measured vertical settlement velocity in still air and horizontal dispersal distance in moving air. Correlations between morphological traits of cypsela and settlement velocity and horizontal dispersal distance were analyzed in relation to invasive range. Important findings We categorized the ten Asteraceae invasive species into three classes with strong, medium and weak dispersal-wind potential according to morphological traits of cypsela. Correlation analysis showed that pappus traits and weight of cypsela significantly affected both the settlement velocity and the horizontal dispersal distance. The settlement velocity was significantly affected by both pappus length (r = –0.483, p < 0.001) and barb numbers on pappus (r = –0.282, p = 0.002). Factors most affecting horizontal dispersal distance were cypsela weight and pappus length. Settlement velocity and horizontal dispersal distance were negatively correlated (r = –0.806, p = 0.005). The occurrence of these Asteraceae invasive species was significantly negatively correlated with settlement velocity (r = –0.721, p = 0.019) and significantly positively correlated with horizontal dispersal distance (r = 0.927, p = 0.000), suggesting that the horizontal dispersal distance better reflected invasiveness. Agratum conyzoides and Galinsoga parviflora with high invasiveness should be primary targets for invasive species management in Nanjing, China based on our results.
    Reproductive traits associated with invasiveness in Coreopsis lanceolata
    ZENG Jian-Jun, XIAO Yi-An, SUN Min
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  966-972.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.009
    Abstract ( 1960 )   PDF (441KB) ( 1962 )   Save
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    Aims The invasive plant Coreopsis lanceolata can reproduce sexually and clonally, but the relative importance of these remains largely unknown. Our objective was to determine if reproductive characteristics affect the invasiveness of C. lanceolata. Methods We observed the flowering dynamics of inflorescence, self compatibility, germination traits of seed and clonal reproductive traits of C. lanceolata. Important findings Most C. lanceolata flowered and fruited between April and November. The florescence of a single capitulum persisted approximately 5 to 6 days, and the fruits matured after 18 days. Bagged capitula showed there were no seed set in single capitulum, and they were geitonogamous, which indicated self-incompatibility. The pollen-ovule (P/O) ratio was 103 549.40 ± 7 162.44. There was high pollen viability during flowering, and pollinator movement ensured endogamy, which improved the rate of out-crossing. Under natural conditions, the germination percentage is >50%, and germination occurs within 2–3 days. Coreopsis lanceolata has strong asexual capacity; there were many phalanx ramets from roots during the growing season, and the guerrilla ramets only occurred beginning in the last ten days of August, which is beneficial to C. lanceolata in excluding other species and forming mono-culture populations. These results suggest that the invasiveness of C. lanceolata is closely related to its reproductive traits.
    Effects of controlling apple orchard productivity on soil moisture and photosynthetic characteristics
    ZHANG Yi, XIE Yong-Sheng, JU Yan, WANG Hui
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  973-978.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.010
    Abstract ( 1918 )   PDF (409KB) ( 1310 )   Save
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    Aims Our objective is to explore the effects of controlling productivity on resource use in an apple orchard in order to improve sustainability and efficiency. Methods We investigated the effects of different productivities (3.6 × 105, 3.15 × 105, 2.7 × 105, 2.25 × 105 and 1.8 × 105 ind·hm–2) on soil moisture and photosynthetic characteristics in ‘Fuji’ apple trees during the fruit-bearing period using a neutron probe (503DR) and Li-6400 portable photosynthetic analysis system. Important findings Soil moisture at every soil layer increased with decreased productivity, with the maximum increment of 31.02% at the 60 cm depth. Within the 600 cm profile, water storage capacity could increase 15.41%. With decreased productivity, midday depression of photosynthesis was abated, net photosynthetic rate (Pn) increased, the highest Pn increased 25.71% compared with the control treatment (3.6 × 105 ind·hm–2), the transpiration rate (Tr) was decreased in the afternoon and the optimum water use efficiency (WUE) was improved by 34.12% compared with the control. There were significant correlations between water storage capacity (WSC) and Pn, Tr and WUE (Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.973**, -0.543* and 0.992**, respectively). The regression model of WSC (x) and WUE (y) was y = 0.002 3x – 1.480 6, R2 = 0.984 4**. Controlling productivity improved soil moisture and photosynthetic characteristics and increased WUE, improving harmonious, sustainable development of nature, the economy and society in the apple production area.
    Review
    Review of the roles of plants and soil microorganisms in regulating ecosystem nutrient cycling
    JIANG Jing, SONG Ming-Hua
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  979-988.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.011
    Abstract ( 2220 )   PDF (665KB) ( 2751 )   Save
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    Above- and below-ground are important components of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants and microorganisms are dependent on each other, and they are important in the linkage between above- and below-ground processes. The relationship between plants and soil microorganisms and the fundamental role played by above- and below- ground feedbacks are important in controlling ecosystem processes and properties. Plant species play a fundamental role in nutrient absorption, nutrient accumulation, nutrient distribution and nutrient return. Soil microorganisms are important in controlling plant nutrient availability and soil quality. Our main objective is to summarize the relationships between plants and microbes, such as facilitation and competition. Plants, as producers, provide nutrients for soil microorganisms via leaf litter and root exudation. Soil microorganisms, as decomposers, break down organic matter and provide nutrients to plants. A wide range of soil microbes form intimate symbiotic associations with plants, and this can stimulate plant productivity by delivering limited nutrients to their host plants. However, both plants and microbes compete for nutrients because plant nutrient uptake and microbial immobilization occur simultaneously. We provide an integrated analysis of effects of plant diversity on soil microbial diversity, as well as direct and indirect effects of soil microbes on plant diversity and productivity. Previously, the mechanisms of plants and microorganisms in regulating ecosystem nutrient cycling have been controversial. Litter chemical composition and diversity should be considered important functional traits that explain the mechanisms. It is clear that interactions between plants and microbes play a fundamental role in maintaining the stability of natural ecosystems. This review elucidates the linkage between aboveground and belowground processes, which have been treated separately in the past.
    A review of acclimation of photosynthetic pigment composition in plant leaves to shade environment
    SUN Xiao-Ling, XU Yue-Fei, MA Lu-Yi, ZHOU He
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  989-999.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.012
    Abstract ( 2394 )   PDF (450KB) ( 2180 )   Save
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    Chlorophylls function in harvesting light energy, funneling the excitation to reaction center and converting sunlight into chemical energy, and carotenoids are responsible for light harvesting and photoprotection. Both are vital for photosynthesis. We summarized the distribution and function of the main photosynthetic pigments and variation of pigment composition and content in sun and shade plants. Sun plants possess larger xanthophyll cycle pool size (violaxanthin + antheraxanthin + zeaxanthin), but de-epoxidation level is lower than that of shade plants. The ratio of lutein to xanthophyll cycle pool size is positively correlated to plant shade tolerance. Light intensity and spectral quality vary between different shade sources. Generally for plant growth, building shade is better than vegetation shade, and deciduous shade exceeds coniferous shade. Variation in light intensity may activate two cycles in plants, xanthophyll cycle and lutein epoxide cycle, for light harvesting or energy dissipation. Some species may alter chlorophyll content and Chl a/b ratio to acclimate to different light intensity, but this character is not related to their shade tolerance. Temporary shade is not necessarily detrimental. Xanthophyll cycle pool size is not only determined by daily photon receipt, but also by the way photon flux is distributed over the daylight hours, because light and temperature are both essential for optimal photosynthetic metabolism. The best photosynthetic performances of plants were obtained with the reinforcement of blue, red and far red wavelengths and with a red: far red ratio closer to that observed in nature. We reviewed internal and external factors affecting photosynthetic pigment content and composition, and determined that during the acclimation to different light environments, plants altered pigment composition and content mainly through adjusting the ratio of reaction center to light harvesting complex and PSI/PSII. We also discussed current research problems and provided insight into future relevant research.
    Research Communications
    Late Quaternary pollen records in China
    NI Jian, CHEN Yu, Ulrike HERZSCHUH, DONG Dan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2010, 34 (8):  1000-1005.  doi:10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.013
    Abstract ( 2172 )   PDF (817KB) ( 1975 )   Save
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    Pollen data are the foundation of reconstructing past vegetation patterns and of studying past climate changes and interactions among atmosphere, biosphere and human activities. We searched for pollen-related literature published and reported from the 1960s to 2008 and collected late Quaternary pollen sampling information for China. We focused on the past 20 000 years before present (aBP), especially the Holocene. Information includes site name, detailed location in text and in latitude, longitude and elevation, sample type, sediment depth, number of pollen samples, radiocarbon dating, time period, and reference. There are 2 324 surface pollen samples from soils and lakes and 987 cores/profiles of sediment fossil records. Among them there are 714 fossil pollen sampling sites with high quality data of pollen and radiocarbon dating. Despite research has been performed by domestic and international paleo-scientists in collecting pollen samples and in Quaternary studies in China, geographical gaps exist due to the limitation of financial support and poor topographical conditions. These include the northern and northwestern desert areas, non-settlement area of the Tibetan Plateau, mountainous areas of middle-southern China and highly disturbed areas of eastern China. More pollen sampling records are needed to update and complete the information database. Such information will greatly benefit the Quaternary Chinese Pollen Database. Furthermore, scientific questions can be addressed based on the databases, such as what the geographical patterns of paleovegetation in China were during the late Quaternary, what were the key times of vegetation shifts (abrupt changes), what were the driving factors of vegetation changes, climate change or human disturbances, and how have vegetation changes influenced local and regional climates?

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