植物生态学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (10): 1075-1093.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2020.0055

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生物互作与全球变化下的生态系统动态: 从理论到应用

贺强*()   

  1. 复旦大学生命科学学院, 生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 上海 200438
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-03 接受日期:2020-07-02 出版日期:2021-10-20 发布日期:2020-07-03
  • 通讯作者: 贺强
  • 作者简介:E-mail: he_qiang@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31870414)

Biotic interactions and ecosystem dynamics under global change: from theory to application

HE Qiang*()   

  1. MOE Key Laboratory of Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China
  • Received:2020-03-03 Accepted:2020-07-02 Online:2021-10-20 Published:2020-07-03
  • Contact: HE Qiang
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31870414)

摘要:

随着气候变化和人类活动的加剧, 生态系统组成与结构的时空动态正变得日益剧烈和复杂, 许多生态系统呈退化趋势。全球变化背景下的生态系统动态及其形成机制既是生态学的基础理论问题, 也是生态系统修复和保护中亟需认识的关键应用问题。该文在概述连续型、阈值型和随机型等生态系统动态模式的基础上, 分析生物互作影响生态系统动态的机理; 结合次生演替、稳态转换、物种分布区移位等研究热点, 总结有关生物互作对生态系统动态影响的主要研究进展; 并探讨相关生物互作理论在生态系统保护和修复中的应用。日益丰富的研究表明, 竞争、促进(包括共生)、营养级间的互作等一系列生物互作可直接或间接驱动或改变生态系统在不同时空尺度上变化的模式、方向及速率; 在生态系统管理实践中, 应用生物互作的相关理论有望大幅提升生态系统保护和修复的成效。进一步丰富和完善该领域的基础理论及应用实践, 需要今后在生物互作对生态系统动态影响的时空变异机制、多重干扰下生物互作对生态系统动态的影响、生物互作在生态系统保护和修复中的应用等方面开展深入研究。

关键词: 生物互作, 次生演替, 稳态转换, 物种分布区移位, 生态修复, 生态学应用

Abstract:

Under intensifying human activities and climate change, spatiotemporal changes in ecosystem composition and structure are becoming increasingly drastic and intricate, and there are trends of degradation in many ecosystems. An improved understanding of ecosystem dynamics and their underlying mechanisms in the context of global change can not only help resolve fundamental theoretical questions in ecology, but can also inform applied issues in ecosystem restoration and conservation. Here, we review different models of ecosystem dynamics (gradual continuum, threshold/regime shift, and stochastic) and conceptualize the mechanisms by which biotic interactions can potentially modulate ecosystem dynamics. We then synthesize the state of understanding how biotic interactions regulate secondary succession, regime shift, and species range shift—ecosystem dynamics subject to intense recent investigation. We further discuss results from studies that applied theories on biotic interactions in ecosystem restoration and conservation. We show that there is a growing body of research revealing 1) that multiple types of biotic interactions, such as competition, facilitation (including mutualism), and trophic interactions, can drive or substantially alter the patterns, directions, and rates of ecosystem change at various spatiotemporal scales, and 2) that managing biotic interactions is likely to greatly enhance the performance of ecosystem restoration and conservation. To move forward, we highlight that further research is needed to better understand how the impacts of biotic interactions on ecosystem dynamics vary spatially and temporally, how biotic interactions modulate ecosystem dynamics under multiple anthropogenic disturbances, and how best to manage biotic interactions to optimize ecosystem conservation and restoration.

Key words: biotic interactions, secondary succession, regime shift, species range shift, restoration ecology, ecological application