植物生态学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (10): 977-989.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0013

• 综述 •    下一篇

植物遗传多样性与生态系统功能关系的研究进展

张俪文,韩广轩()   

  1. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所, 中国科学院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室, 山东烟台 264003
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-11 出版日期:2018-10-20 发布日期:2019-01-30
  • 通讯作者: 韩广轩 E-mail:gxhan@yic.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31670533);中国科学院青年创新促进会项目(2018247)

A review on the relationships between plant genetic diversity and ecosystem functioning

ZHANG Li-Wen,HAN Guang-Xuan()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003, China
  • Received:2018-01-11 Online:2018-10-20 Published:2019-01-30
  • Contact: Guang-Xuan HAN E-mail:gxhan@yic.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31670533);the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(2018247)

摘要:

全球变化和人类活动导致物种生境的萎缩, 造成很多植物种群数量缩减, 遗传多样性快速丧失。对于物种多样性低的生态系统, 优势种的遗传多样性可能比物种多样性对生态系统功能产生更大的影响。因此, 了解遗传多样性和生态系统功能的关系(GD-EF)及其机制对生物多样性保护、应对环境变化和生态修复具有指导意义。该文综述了植物遗传多样性对生态系统结构(高营养级生物群落结构)和生态系统功能(初级生产力、养分循环和稳定性)的影响及机制、功能多样性对GD-EF的影响、遗传多样性效应和物种多样性效应的比较, 以及GD-EF在生态修复等实际应用的研究进展。最后指出当前研究的不足之处, 以期为后续研究提供参考: 1)还需深入研究GD-EF机制; 2)未评估遗传多样性对生态系统多功能性的影响; 3)不同遗传多样性测度对生态系统功能的影响不明确; 4)缺少长期的和多空间尺度结合的GD-EF实验; 5)遗传多样性效应相对于其他因子的作用不清楚。

关键词: 遗传多样性, 基因型多样性, 群落结构, 生态系统功能, 加性效应, 互补效应

Abstract:
The loss of genetic diversity is accelerating due to habitat loss and population reduction caused by global change and anthropologenic activities. For species-poor ecosystems, the effect of genetic diversity on ecosystem functioning may not be smaller than that of species diversity. Therefore, understanding the relationship between genetic diversity and ecosystem functioning (GD-EF) and its underlying mechanisms is important for biodiversity conservation, responses of ecosystems to environmental change and ecological restoration. Here, we reviewed the studies on the effects of plant genetic diversity on ecosystem structures (community structure of the higher tropic level) and ecosystem functions (primary production, nutrient cycling and ecosystem stability), and the mechanisms underlying these relationships. We also discussed the influence of functional diversity on GD-EF, the comparison of effects of the genetic and species diversity on ecosystem functioning, and the application of GD-EF in the ecological restorations. We finally pointed out the limitations in current studies to provide references for the future: (1) further studies on the mechanisms of GD-EF are needed; (2) no study has evaluated the influence of genetic diversity on maltifunctinarity; (3) the impacts of different measurements of genetic diversity on ecosystem functioning are unclear; (4) there are lack of long-time GD-EF studies and GD-EF studies conducted at multidimensional scales; (5) the relative importance of genetic diversity and other factors on ecosystem functioning in the nature is unclear.

Key words: genetic diversity, genotypic diversity, ecosystem structure, ecosystem function, additive effect, complementarity effect