Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (4): 416-432.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0041

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles    

Effect of water-lever regulation on species selection for ecological restoration practice in the water-level fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir

FAN Da-Yong1, XIONG Gao-Ming1, ZHANG Ai-Ying1,2, LIU Xi1,3,4, XIE Zong-Qiang1,*(), LI Zhao-Jia1,2   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3College of Biology and Pharmacy, Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, China
    4Collaborative Innovation Center for Geo-Hazards and Eco-Environment in Three Gorges Area, Hubei Province, Yichang, Hubei 443002, China
  • Received:2014-10-21 Accepted:2015-03-31 Online:2015-04-21 Published:2015-04-01
  • Contact: Zong-Qiang XIE E-mail:xie@ibcas.ac.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract:

The water-level fluctuation zones in the Three Gorges Reservoir are facing a number of ecological problems following establishment. Ecological restoration practice is the key to solve these problems. Theoretically, species selection is critical for ecological restoration. However, the results of plant adaptation capability to the water-level fluctuation zone by yearly community observations in the past few years did not match those obtained from flooding simulation experiments, nor are they consistent with the short-term in situ planting experiments. One of the reasons leading to such inconsistency is that the practical water-level scheduling is different from the scheme adopted in the flooding simulation experiments with regards to the flooding rhythm, duration and depth. An analysis on the practical water level over four years in Zong Xian of Chongqing revealed that: a) there existed a large difference between the practical and theoretical water-level scheduling; b) the submerged days at the elevation of 146, 152, 158, 164, 170 and 176 m during the non-growing season (from October to the following April) were 294, 266, 223, 167, 101 and 0, respectively. The flooding days at those sites during the growing season flooding were 68, 20, 11, 1, 0, and 0, respectively. Sites below the elevation of 164 m suffer frequent waterlogging during the growing season. Currently, most flooding simulation experiments only emphasized the short-term shallow submergence during growing season, neglecting deep submergence during non-growing season. In fact, many studies have proven that significant differences in the responses of plants to submergence existed between the growing and non-growing seasons, as well as between deep and shallow submergence. Further, flooding simulation experiments did not account for in situ inter-specific relationship and community assembly. Accordingly, the flooding simulation experiment for species selection strategy has some shortcomings. Based on the analysis, we suggest that the species selection strategy design in the future should emphasize on: 1) the mechanisms attributing to adaptation of species to the water fluctuation zone during non-growing season; 2) the growth recovery, expansion and colonization of species following release from submergence; and 3) long-term observations on plant community and field grown plants. Long-term observations of field grown plants need to be taken seriously. Studies of species distribution, population and community dynamics, as well as landscape pattern, using plant functional type method, have an important role in guiding the ecological restoration practice in the water fluctuation zone, and are an important part of ecological research in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.

Key words: The fluctuating zones of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, growing and non-growing flooding stresses, plant functional group

Fig. 1

Average annual water-level and fluctuations at the Zhongxian site during 2009-2013. The source of theoretical water-level regulation: Three Gorges Project Preliminary Design Report by Changjiang Water Resources Commission, The Ministry of Water Resources, China in 1992."

Table 1

The practical and theoretical submergence period of sites at different altitudes at Zhongxian, Chongqing City"

海拔
Altitude (m)
实际淹水天数 Submerged days in practice (d) 理论淹水天数
Theoretical submerged day (d)
2009年 2010年 2011年 2012年 平均值 Average 方差 Sd.
176 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
170 63 (0) 81 (0) 122 (0) 139 (0) 101.3 (0) 35.3 (0) 79 (0)
164 145 (0) 134 (0) 185 (0) 207 (5) 167.8 (1.3) 34.1 (2.5) 105 (0)
158 217 (0) 196 (15) 222 (0) 258 (31) 223.3 (11.5) 25.8 (14.8) 189 (0)
152 251 (9) 277 (23) 261 (7) 276 (42) 266.3 (20.3) 12.5 (16.2) 213 (0)
146 277 (84) 307 (56) 294 (68) 298 (67) 294 (68.8) 12.6 (11.5) 237 (0)

Fig. 2

Relationship between submergence depth and duration (mean ± SD)."

Table 2

Selection of perennial species tolerant to submergence in growing season based on the actual water regulation rhythm"

物种
Species
淹水深度
Submergence depth (m)
淹水天数
Submergence days (d)
存活率
Survival rate (%)
筛选方法
Screening method
文献来源
Reference
狗牙根 Cynodon dactylon 2 30 100 SW Wang et al., 2008c
香根草 Vetiveria zizanioides 1 30 100 SW Wang et al., 2008a
菖蒲 Acorus calamus 1.5 30 100 SW Wang et al., 2008a
喜旱莲子草
Alternanthera philoxeroides
2
2
30
23
100
100
SW
SW
Wang et al., 2008a
Xu et al., 2014
牛鞭草 Hemarthria altissima 2 30 100 SW Wang et al., 2008c
地果 Ficus tikoua 2 30 100 SW Wang et al., 2008c
Triarrhena sacchariflora 2 30 100 SW Wang et al., 2008c
野古草 Arundinella anomala 2 20-40 100 SW Luo et al., 2006
Luo et al., 2008
秋华柳 Salix variegata 2 20-40 100 SW Luo et al., 2008
Zhang et al., 2006

Table 3

Selection of perennial species tolerant to submergence in non-growing season based on the actual water regulation rhythm"

物种
Species
淹水深度
Submerged depth
(m)
淹水天数
Submerged days
(d)
存活率
Survival rate
(%)
筛选方法
Screening method
文献来源
Reference
狗牙根 Cynodon dactylon 25 216 100 野外种植 Field planting (FP) Tan et al., 2009a, 2010
5 41 100 FP Tan et al., 2009b
硬秆子草 Capillipedium assimile 25 216 80 FP Tan et al., 2009b
双穗雀稗 Paspalum paspaloides 25 216 80 FP Tan et al., 2009b
15 150 100 FP Tan et al., 2013
牛鞭草 Hemarthria altissima 0.5 30 100 FP Li et al., 2013
虉草 Phalaris arundinacea 0.5 30 100 FP Li et al., 2013
香根草 Vetiveria zizanioides 11 169 100 FP Guo et al., 2012
秋华柳 Salix variegata 10 180 100 FP Qin et al., 2012
地果 Ficus tikoua 10 180 100 FP Qin et al., 2012

Table 4

Adaptability of some perennials to riparian habitat investigated by community survey method"

物种
Species
优势区域
Dominant site (m)
观察年份
Year of observation
调查范围
Investigation region
文献来源
Reference
狗牙根 Cynodon dactylon 145-172
145-177
145-175
145-173
145-165
150-170
145-175
145-175
2009
2010
2009
2009
2010
2011
2010
2011
全库区 Full reservoir range
香溪河 Xiangxi River
石宝寨 Shibaozhai
全库区 Full reservoir range
白夹溪 Baijia Creek
白夹溪 Baijia Creek
全库区 Full reservoir range
小江 Xiaojiang River
Wang et al., 2012
Zhou et al., 2012
Wang et al., 2011
Wang et al., 2009
Chen et al., 2012
Li et al., 2012
Liu et al., 2012
Zhang et al., 2013
半夏 Pinellia ternata 145-172 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides 145-176
145-175
155-173
155-165
2010
2009
2009
2010
全库区 Full reservoir range
石宝寨 Shibaozhai
全库区 Full reservoir range
全库区 Full reservoir range
Ye et al., 2013
Wang et al., 2011
Wang et al., 2012
Liu et al., 2012
野苜蓿 Medicago falcata1) 156-176 2010 全库区 Full reservoir range Ye et al., 2013
野胡萝卜 Daucus carota1) 156-176 2010 全库区 Full reservoir range Ye et al., 2013
暗绿蒿 Artemisia atrovirens 156-176 2010 全库区 Full reservoir range Ye et al., 2013
野菊 Dendranthema indicum 156-176 2010 全库区 Full reservoir range Ye et al., 2013
垂序商陆 Phytolacca americana 156-176 2010 全库区 Full reservoir range Ye et al., 2013
香根草 Vetiveria zizanioides 145-177 2010 香溪河 Xiangxi River Zhou et al., 2012
疏花水柏枝 Myricaria laxiflora 145-177 2010 香溪河 Xiangxi River Zhou et al., 2012
黄茅 Heteropogon contortus 160-173 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
硬秆子草 Capillipedium assimile 165-170 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
扁穗牛鞭草 Hemarthria compressa 165-173 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
虉草 Phalaris arundinacea 170-173 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
莲子草 Alternanthera sessilis 145-150 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
香附子 Cyperus rotundus 145-150
150-160
145-155
2009
2011
2010
全库区 Full reservoir range
白夹溪 Baijia Creek
全库区 Full reservoir range
Wang et al., 2012
Li et al., 2012
Liu et al., 2012
双穗雀稗 Paspalum paspaloides 150-173 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
木贼状荸荠 Heleocharis equisetina 160-170 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
鸭舌草 Monochoria vaginalis 165-170 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
宽叶香蒲 Typha latifolia 155-173 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
藨草 Scirpus triqueter 155-160 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012
萤蔺 Scirpus juncoides 155-160 2009 全库区 Full reservoir range Wang et al., 2012

Table 5

Growth recovery of some riparian perennials after release from submergence in the fluctuating zones of the Three Gorges Reservoir region"

物种
Species
淹水深度
Submergence
depth (m)
淹水开始时间
Beginning of submergence
淹水天数
Submergence
day (d)
恢复时间
Recovery
time (d)
恢复指标
Recovery
parameters
文献来源
Reference
芦苇
Phragmites australis
0.2 8月
August
30 30 长出新叶
New leaves appear
Bai et al., 2012
狗牙根
Cynodon dactylon
0.1 8月
August
45 26 光合能力增强
Photosynthesis is enhanced
Chen et al., 2010
25 10月
October
216 6.7 出新芽
Sprouts appear
Tan et al., 2009a
25 10月
October
216 30 光合能力恢复到对照水平
Photosynthesis is recovered to the control level
Tan et al., 2009b
2 7月
July
30-90 20 总枝长、总枝数、叶片数的RGR与对照无显著差异
Total branch length, total number of branches and leaves are not different from the control
Wang et al., 2008c
17 10月
October
207 24 SOD、POD、CAT酶活恢复到对照
Activity of SOD, POD and CAT are recovered to the control level
Li et al., 2013
秋华柳
Salix variegata
2 1月
January
120 7 长新叶
New leaves appear
Li et al., 2008
10 9月
September
180 50 覆盖度上升1)
Coverage increase1)
Qin et al., 2012
野古草
Arundinella anomala
2 1月
January
90 20 分蘖数恢复到对照2)
Tillers are returned to the control2)
Li et al., 2012
硬秆子草
Capillipedium assimile
25 10月
October
216 8.3 出新芽 Sprouts appear Tan et al., 2009b
25 10月
October
216 30 光合能力恢复到对照水平
Photosynthesis is recovered to the control level
Tan et al., 2009b
双穗雀稗
Paspalum paspaloides
25 10月
October
216 10.7 出新芽 Sprouts appear Tan et al., 2009b
25 10月
October
216 30 光合能力恢复到对照
Photosynthesis is recovered to the control level
Tan et al., 2009b
喜旱莲子草
Alternanthera
philoxeroides
2 7月
July
30-60 10 总枝长、总枝数、叶片数与对照一样
Total branch length, total number of branches and leaves are not different from the control
Wang et al., 2008c
牛鞭草
Hemarthria altissima
2 7月
July
30-90 20 总枝长、总枝数、叶片数的RGR与对照无显著差异
Total branch length, total number of branches and leaves are not different from the control
Wang et al., 2008c
17 10月
October
207 24 SOD、POD、CAT酶活恢复到对照
Activity of SOD, POD and CAT are recovered to the control level
Li et al., 2013

Triarrhena
sacchariflora
2 7月
July
30-90 20 总枝长、总枝数、叶片数的RGR与对照无显著差异
Total branch length, total number of branches and leaves are not different from the control
Wang et al., 2008c
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