Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (11): 1033-1043.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0100

• Orginal Article •     Next Articles

Effects of tree species on soil organic carbon density: A common garden experiment of five temperate tree species

WANG Xin-Qi, WANG Chuan-Kuan*(), HAN Yi   

  1. Center for Ecological Research, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
  • Received:2015-02-02 Accepted:2015-08-13 Online:2015-12-02 Published:2015-11-01
  • Contact: Chuan-Kuan WANG E-mail:wangck-cf@nefu.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract:

Aims Forest trees alter litter inputs, turnover and rhizospheric activities, modify soil physical, chemical and biological properties, and consequently affect soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and carbon sink strength. That how to select appropriate tree species in afforestation, reforestation and management practices is critical to enhancing forest carbon sequestration. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of tree species on SOC density and vertical distributions.Methods A common garden experiment with the same climate, soil, and management history was established in Maoershan Forest Ecosystem Station, Northeast China, in 2004. The experimental design was a completely randomized arrangement with twenty 25 m × 25 m plots, consisting of monocultures of five tree species, including white birch (Betula platyphylla), Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii), and Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica), each with four replicated plots. A decade after the establishment (2013-2014), we measured carbon density and related factors (i.e., bulk density, total nitrogen concentration, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, pH value) in soils of the 0-40 cm depth for these monocultures. Important findings Results showed that tree species significantly influenced the SOC density in the 0-40 cm depth (p < 0.05). SOC density in the 0-10 cm depth varied from 2.79 to 3.08 kg·m-2, in the order of walnut > ash> birch > larch > pine, in the 10-20 cm depth from 1.56 to 2.19 kg·m-2, in the order of pine > walnut > ash > birch > larch, in the 20-30 cm depth from 1.17 to 2.10 kg·m-2, and in the 20-40 cm depth from 0.84 to 1.43 kg·m-2. The greatest SOC density occurred in the birch stands in the 20-40 cm depth. The vertical distributions of SOC density varied with tree species. The percentage of SOC in the 0-10 cm depth over the total SOC in the soil profile was significantly higher in the walnut and larch stands than in others, while the percentage of SOC in the 20-40 cm depth over the total SOC was highest in the birch stands. SOC concentration and soil bulk density differed significantly among the stands of different tree species, and were negatively correlated. SOC density was positively correlated with soil microbial biomass and soil pH in the walnut, ash, and larch stands, and with total nitrogen density in all the stands. We conclude that tree species modifies soil properties and microbial activity, thereby influencing SOC density, and that different patterns of vertical distributions of SOC density among monocultures of different tree species may be attributed to varying SOC controls at each soil depth.

Key words: tree species, soil property, soil organic carbon, soil microbe, vertical distribution

Table 1

Site characteristics in the monocultures of five tree species (mean ± SD)"

树种
Tree species
基径
Basal diameter
(cm)
胸径
Diameter at breast height
(cm)
树高
Tree height (m)
土壤全氮
Soil total nitrogen
(g·kg-1)
土壤pH值
Soil pH value
白桦 Betula platyphylla 10.64 ± 2.84 7.61 ± 2.13 10.07 ± 1.19 3.37 ± 0.11 4.64 ± 0.05
胡桃楸 Juglans mandshurica 5.81 ± 2.90 3.63 ± 1.90 3.74 ± 1.79 3.54 ± 0.21 4.77 ± 0.04
水曲柳 Fraxinus mandshurica 13.73 ± 16.60 7.50 ± 9.97 3.01 ± 2.10 3.63 ± 0.21 4.75 ± 0.05
落叶松 Larix gmelinii 9.32 ± 2.97 7.46 ± 4.07 6.80 ± 1.48 3.16 ± 0.15 4.69 ± 0.06
樟子松 Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica 9.75 ± 2.08 7.36 ± 3.49 4.66 ± 0.65 3.40 ± 0.11 4.79 ± 0.05

Fig. 1

Comparisons of soil bulk density (A), soil organic carbon concentration (B), and soil organic carbon density (C) among the monocultures of five tree species for 0-40 cm soil layer (mean ± SE). BH, HTQ, LYS, SQL, and ZZS represent Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Larix gmelinii, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, respectively. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among tree species."

Fig. 2

Comparisons of the vertical changes in soil bulk density (A), soil organic carbon concentration (B), and soil organic carbon density (C) among the monocultures of five tree species (mean ± SE). BH, HTQ, LYS, SQL, and ZZS represent Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Larix gmelinii, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, respectively. Different lowercase letters within the same soil layers indicate significant differences among tree species, and the soil layers without designation of letters are not significantly different among groups."

Fig. 3

Vertical changes in the percentage of soil organic carbon in each soil layer over the total soil organic carbon in the monocultures of five tree species (mean ± SE). BH, HTQ, LYS, SQL, and ZZS represent Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Larix gmelinii, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, respectively. Different lowercase letters within the same soil layers indicate significant differences among tree species."

Fig. 4

Comparisons of the vertical changes in soil microbial biomass carbon concentration (A) and density (B) among the monocultures of five tree species (mean ± SE). BH, HTQ, LYS, SQL, and ZZS represent Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Larix gmelinii, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, respectively. Different lowercase letters within the same soil layers indicate significant differences among tree species, and the soil layers without designation of letters are not significantly different among groups."

Table2

Pearson correlation coefficients among soil organic carbon concentration,soil organic carbon density and related factors in the monocultures of five tree species"

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