Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (5): 519-528.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0381

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Water sources of Populus euphratica and Tamarix ramosissima in Ejina Delta, the lower reaches of the Heihe River, China

Ya-Fei LI1,2,3,4, Jing-Jie YU1,5,*, Kai LU1,4, Ping WANG1, Yi-Chi ZHANG1, Chao-Yang DU1   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;

    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

    3Sino-Danish Center for Education andResearch, Beijing 100190, China
    4 Sino-Danish College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

    5College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
  • Online:2017-06-22 Published:2017-05-10
  • Contact: Jing-Jie YU
  • About author:

    KANG Jing-yao(1991-), E-mail: kangjingyao_nj@163.com

Abstract:

Aims We aim to evaluate the water sources of typical riparian arbor species (Populus euphratica) and shrub species (Tamarix ramosissima), and analyze the spatial and temporal dynamics of plant water source in Ejina Delta, the lower reaches of the Heihe River, China.Methods Eight sampling sites were selected in the riparian zones along the East River and West River in Ejina. The plant xylem water, soil moisture, rainwater, stream water and groundwater were taken and pretreated during the growing season in 2015-2016, and the stable oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) for each water sample was measured. The δ18O of plant xylem water and soil moisture were compared to estimate the dominant depth of root water uptake, and the linear-mixed model called “IsoSource” were applied to determine plant water sources and quantify their proportions.Important findings This study indicated that the main recharge sources for P. euphratica and T. ramosissima were stream water and groundwater. The contributions of rain water to them was negligible due to the limited amount and the shallow infiltration depth of local rainfall. As affected by groundwater level fluctuation, soil physical properties, as well as lateral and vertical recharge of stream water on soil moisture, the dominant depth of root water uptake spatially varied. However, the relative contributions of stream water or groundwater to plant water sources did not change significantly across space. Populus euphratica used more stream water (68%), while T. ramosissima used more groundwater (65%). Plant water sources were sensitive to environmental flow controls. The contributions of stream water to the water sources of the two species went up to 84% and 48% for P. euphratica and T. ramosissima respectively during the discharge period, but dropped to 63% and 30% during the non-discharge period. On the other hand, the contributions of groundwater decreased to 16% and 52% during the discharge period, but increased to 37% and 70% during non-discharge period. It is noteworthy that the high similarity of δ18O between stream water and groundwater due to extensive water exchange in the riparian zone made increase the uncertain in quantifying plant water sources.

Key words: arid region, riparian zone, plant water source, stable oxygen isotope, environmental flow controls

Fig. 1

Location of the study area and sampling sites. The coordinates of the sites in the figure are as follows: Dongfeng Town Bridge (100.55° E, 41.25° N), E1 (100.33° E, 41.04° N), E2 (100.69° E, 41.44° N), E3 (101.07° E, 41.88° N), E4 (101.12° E, 41.99° N), E5 (101.14° E, 42.00° N), E6 (101.09° E, 42.01° N), GW1 (100.79° E, 41.92° N), GW2 (100.91° E, 41.94° N), Langxinshan Hydrological Station (100.32° E, 41.04° N), W1 (100.44° E, 41.44° N), W2 (100.67° E, 41.92° N)."

Table 1

Soil textural profiles at each sampling site"

样点
Sampling site
土壤埋深
Soil depth (cm)
土壤质地
Soil texture
样点
Sampling site
土壤埋深
Soil depth (cm)
土壤质地
Soil texture
E1 0-80 砂土 Sand E5 0-50 粉壤土 Silt loam
80-85 壤质砂土 Loamy sand 50-100 壤土 Loam
85-90 砂土 Sand 100-130 粉壤土 Silt loam
90-100 细砂 Fine sand E6 0-30 壤质细砂 Loamy fine sand
100-130 砂土 Sand 30-90 细砂 Fine sand
130-170 细砂 Fine sand 90-120 砂黏土 Sandy clay
170-185 砂壤土 Sandy loam 120-160 细砂 Fine sand
185-200 壤质砂土 Loamy sand 160-180 壤土 Loam
E2 0-20 壤质细砂 Loamy fine sand 180-210 砂土 Sand
20-50 细砂壤土 Fine sandy loam 210-230 黏土 Clay
50-70 极细砂壤土 Very fine sandy loam 230-320 细砂 Fine sand
70-100 粉壤土 Silt loam W1 0-90 壤质砂土 Loamy sand
100-200 砂土 Sand 90-110 壤质粗砂 Loamy coarse sand
E3 0-30 粉壤土 Silt loam 110-130 砂土 Sand
30-80 细砂壤土 Very fine sandy loam 130-160 粗砂 Coarse sand
80-105 细砂 Fine sand 160-210 砂土 Sand
105-220 粗砂 Coarse sand W2 0-60 壤质砂土 Loamy sand
E4 0-15 细砂壤土 Fine sandy loam 60-80 砂土 Sand
15-60 砂壤土 Very fine sandy loam 80-120 粉壤土 Silt loam
60-120 粉壤土 Silt loam 120-200 砂土 Sand
120-170 砂土 Sand 200-210 粗砂 Coarse sand
210-230 壤质砂土 Loamy sand
230-260 粗砂 Coarse sand

Fig. 2

The stable oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of rainwater (A) and stream water (B) in the study area. VSMOW, Vienna standard mean ocean water."

Table 2

The stable oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of groundwater in the study area"

日期
Date
样点
Spot
δ18O (‰) 日期
Date
样点
Spot
δ18O (‰)
2016-5-31 E1 -7.39 2015-8-16 E5 -6.29
2015-7-22 E2 -5.94 2015-9-13 E5 -6.69
2015-8-16 E2 -5.39 2015-8-16 E6 -5.56
2015-9-13 E2 -5.60 2016-5-29 E6 -7.02
2016-5-31 E2 -6.94 2015-7-21 E6 -6.47
2015-8-16 E3 -5.73 2015-9-13 E6 -6.12
2015-9-13 E3 -5.57 2016-5-31 GW1 -9.84
2016-5-30 E3 -6.96 2016-5-31 GW2 -9.84
2015-7-19 E4 -5.77 2016-5-31 W1 -5.95
2015-8-16 E4 -7.35 2016-5-31 W2 -7.08
2015-9-13 E4 -5.22

Fig. 3

The stable oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of soil moisture and plant xylem water at each sampling site. The coordinates of each sampling site are the same as in Fig.1. “VSMOW” is the abbreviation of “Vienna standard mean ocean water”."

Table 3

Dominant soil depths of root water uptake by Populus euphratica and Tamarix ramosissima at each sampling site"

样点1)
Sampling site1)
植物主要吸水层位 Dominant soil depths of root water uptake 2) (cm)
2015-7 2015-8 2015-9 2016-6 2016-7 2016-8 2016-9
E1 \ \ \ 130-210 80-200 80-260 120-180
E2 100-175 100-200 70-200 80-140 90-140 80-180 80-130
E3 30-220 80-220 50-195 5-170 25-180 \
E4 60-220 60-270 60-220 100-200 110-210 110-230 100-260
E5 50-185 50-185 50-185 90-170 75-240 90-230 110-240
E6 80-330 115-330 115-330 140-370 140-280 115-255 100-235
W1 \ \ \ 100-230 110-230 90-? \
W2 \ \ \ 150-260 100-185 170-210 100-150

Fig. 4

Dynamics of 10-min-gridded precipitation and soil water content at Site E5 (101.14° E, 42.00° N) (2015-9-9-2015-9-10)."

Fig. 5

Proportional contribution (%) of stream water and groundwater to the water sources of Populus euphratica and Tamarix ramosissima respectively. Bars indicate the minimum and maximum values. The coordinates of each sampling site are the same as in Fig.1."

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