Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (10): 877-888.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0178

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of climate variation on the first leaf dates of 39 woody species and their thermal requirements in Xi’an, China

WANG Huan-Jiong(),TAO Ze-Xing,GE Quan-Sheng   

  1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China
  • Received:2019-07-08 Accepted:2019-09-15 Online:2020-02-24 Published:2019-10-20
  • Contact: WANG Huan-Jiong
  • Supported by:
    y the National Key R&D Program of China(2018YFA0606103);the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences(2018070)


Aims The frequency and intensity of exceptional climatic events such as warm spring have increased significantly over the past few decades and exerted a significant impact on the spring phenophases of plants. However, the influence of exceptional climatic events on the thermal requirements of spring phenophases is still unclear, which limits the predictive accuracy of the future phenological changes. Here we aim to demonstrate how the first leaf dates of woody plants and their associated thermal requirements change under exceptional climatic conditions and how exceptional climatic conditions affect the ability of the growing degree model to predict leaf unfolding date. Methods Using data on the first leaf date of 39 woody species at Xi’an Botanical Garden from 1963 to 2018 and the corresponding meteorological data, this study firstly classified each year into the cold year, normal year and warm year. Subsequently, we analyzed the phenological change in the years with abnormal climate compared to the years with normal climate. Second, three kinds of algorithms were used to calculate the thermal requirements of the first leaf date for each plant, and the difference in the thermal requirements between years with abnormal climate and normal climate was compared. Finally, the error of the traditional growing degree day model in the simulation of the first leaf date in exceptional climatic conditions was assessed. Important findings For all plant species, the first leaf date was earlier in warm years than that in normal years with a mean advance of 8.6 days, and it was later in cold years with a mean delay of 8.2 days. In warm years, the thermal requirement of the first leaf date (257.5 degree days on average) was significantly higher than that in normal years (195.1 degree days on average, p < 0.05) for most species. However, in cold years, the thermal requirement (168.0 degree days on average) was lower than in normal years (not statistically significant) for most species. In cold years, the ancient group delayed by more in first leaf date and showed smaller changes in thermal requirement than the young group, but there was no significant difference in warm years.There were no significant differences in changes of first leaf date and thermal requirement among different life forms. The high temperature in the previous winter caused plants to receive less chilling, and thus reduced the thermal requirement in the following year. The first leaf date of woody plants simulated by the growing degree day model was 4.1 days earlier than the observed date in warm years, and was 3.0 days later than the observed date in cold years. Therefore, when predicting the future phenological changes, it is necessary to consider changes in the thermal requirement under exceptional climatic conditions; otherwise, it will overestimate the promotion effects of climate warming on the leaf unfolding date.

Key words: climate change, phenology, first leaf date, thermal requirement, Xi’an;

Table 1

Summary of 39 woody species investigated and their first leaf date in Xi’an"

Life form
Differentiation time (Ma)
First leaf date (month-day)
1 垂柳 Salix babylonica 乔木 Tree 42 32.4a 03-15
2 牡丹 Paeonia suffruticosa 灌木 Shrub 42 115.3b 03-18
3 木瓜 Chaenomeles sinensis 灌木或小乔木 Shrub or small tree 34 3.0a 03-19
4 紫丁香 Syringa oblata 灌木或小乔木 Shrub or small tree 42 11.2a 03-19
5 山桃 Amygdalus davidiana 乔木 Tree 41 82.2b 03-22
6 杜梨 Pyrus betulifolia 乔木 Tree 32 3.0a 03-24
7 连翘 Forsythia suspensa 灌木 Shrub 31 15.2a 03-25
8 毛樱桃 Cerasus tomentosa 灌木 Shrub 32 41.1a 03-25
9 迎春花 Jasminum nudiflorum 灌木 Shrub 38 15.2a 03-25
10 枫杨 Pterocarya stenoptera 乔木 Tree 32 12.1a 03-26
11 灯台树 Cornus controversa 乔木 Tree 32 105.6b 03-29
12 Corylus heterophylla 灌木或小乔木 Shrub or small tree 32 49.3a 03-29
13 蜡梅 Chimonanthus praecox 灌木 Shrub 32 120.6b 03-30
14 水杉 Metasequoia glyptostroboides 乔木 Tree 32 290.0c 04-01
15 胡桃 Juglans regia 乔木 Tree 38 12.1a 04-01
16 栾树 Koelreuteria paniculata 乔木 Tree 40 46.1a 04-02
17 紫荆 Cercis chinensis 灌木 Shrub 42 69.2b 04-02
18 日本樱花 Cerasus yedoensis 乔木 Tree 38 41.1a 04-02
19 玉兰 Yulania denudate 乔木 Tree 41 120.6b 04-03
20 银杏 Ginkgo biloba 乔木 Tree 32 290.0c 04-04
21 色木槭 Acer pictum subsp. mono 乔木 Tree 42 46.1a 04-04
22 枸橘 Poncirus trifoliata 小乔木 Small tree 34 49.9a 04-05
23 悬铃木 Platanus orientalis 乔木 Tree 37 136.9b 04-05
24 Diospyros kaki 乔木 Tree 39 105.6b 04-06
25 毛白杨 Populus tomentosa 乔木 Tree 39 32.4a 04-07
26 女贞 Ligustrum lucidum 乔木 Tree 31 11.2a 04-07
27 紫藤 Wisteria sinensis 藤本 Liana 40 36.1a 04-07
28 刺槐 Robinia pseudoacacia 乔木 Tree 41 36.1a 04-07
29 文冠果 Xanthoceras sorbifolium 灌木或小乔木 Shrub or small tree 30 46.7a 04-08
30 Morus alba 乔木 Tree 42 54.8a 04-08
31 白蜡树 Fraxinus chinensis 乔木 Tree 34 21.7a 04-09
32 构树 Broussonetia papyrifera 乔木 Tree 30 54.8a 04-09
33 臭椿 Ailanthus altissima 乔木 Tree 42 49.9a 04-09
34 Sophora japonica 乔木 Tree 37 53.9a 04-09
35 木槿 Hibiscus syriacus 灌木 Shrub 36 69.2b 04-12
36 黄连木 Pistacia chinensis 乔木 Tree 31 70.9b 04-14
37 紫薇 Lagerstroemia indica 灌木或小乔木 Shrub or small tree 40 111.7b 04-14
38 乌桕 Sapium sebiferum 乔木 Tree 32 100.6b 04-18
39 梧桐 Firmiana simplex 乔木 Tree 30 69.2b 04-20

Fig. 1

Division of the cold years, warm years, and normal years. A, The March to April average temperature from 1963 to 2018. B, The daily mean temperature in years with abnormal and normal climate."

Fig. 2

Difference in first leaf date (FLD) of 39 woody species between the years with abnormal and normal climate in Xi?an. A, The average FLD in cold years, normal years, and warm years for each species. B, The difference in FLD between the years with abnormal and normal climate. The solid bars represent that the difference is significant (p < 0.05). See Table 1 for species No."

Table 2

Comparison of the change in the first leaf date and its thermal requirement of 39 woody species among different groups and life forms in Xi’an (mean ± SD)"

变量 Variable 类群 Group 生活型 Life form
Shrub or small tree
物种数量 N 24 13 2 25 13 1
PC in the cold year (day)
8.6 ± 2.9a 6.7 ± 2.6b 13.2 ± 3.2a,b 7.9 ± 3.0 8.8 ± 3.4 8.1
PC in the warm year (day)
-8.6 ± 2.7 -8.8 ± 2.2 -7.2 ± 0.4 -8.5 ± 2.6 -8.5 ± 2.3 -11.6
CTR in the cold year (degree day)
-26.2 ± 18.7 -32.9 ± 16.4a 0.7 ± 35.8a -29.1 ± 21.5 -23.2 ± 16.2 -25.6
CTR in the warm year (degree day)
62.2 ± 31.8 61.5 ± 26.7 70.7 ± 6.1 67.7 ± 32.6 54.3 ± 18.8 36.4

Fig. 3

Comparison of thermal requirements for the first leaf date (FLD) of 39 woody species between the years with abnormal and normal climate in Xi?an. A, The results of the first method. B, The results of the second method. C, The results of the third method. The solid circles represent that the difference is significant (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 4

Comparisons among different methods for calculating thermal requirements for the first leaf date (FLD) of 39 woody species in Xi?an. A, method 1 vs. method 2. B, method 1 vs. method 3. Black circles represent the mean thermal requirement in normal years for each species. See Fig. 3 for methods."

Fig. 5

Effect of growing degree day model for simulating the first leaf date (FLD) of 39 woody species in Xi?an. A, Goodness of fit (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of the models. B, Error of the model in simulating the FLD in the years with abnormal and normal climate. The solid bars represent that the mean error was significant from 0 (p < 0.05). See Table 1 for species No."

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