Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2021, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (9): 987-995.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2020.0366

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Phylogeny and species differentiation of four wild almond species of subgen. Amygdalus in China

WANG Chun-Cheng1, ZHANG Yun-Ling2, MA Song-Mei3,*(), HUANG Gang1, ZHANG Dan1, YAN Han3   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of Ecological Corps for Oasis City and Mountain Basin System, College of Life Sciences, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China
    2General Grassland Station of Xinjiang, Ürümqi 830049, China
    3Key Laboratory of Ecological Corps for Oasis City and Mountain Basin System, College of Science, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China
  • Received:2020-11-09 Accepted:2021-06-02 Online:2021-09-20 Published:2021-11-18
  • Contact: MA Song-Mei
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41261011);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41561007);Grassland Ecological Restoration and Management Grant Project of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region(XJCYZZ202007)


Aims Based on the ITS sequences, we aimed to analyze the spatial genetic structure, genealogy relationship, and species differentiation of the Amygdalus ledebouriana, A. mongolica, A. pedunculata, A. tangutica in China, and provide data for the future studies on the four species' genetics and evolution.

Methods The median-joining network and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) were used to reveal haplotype clustering. The maximum likelihood method and Bayesian method were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of haplotypes. The “ecospat” package in R 4.0.2 was used to analyze the ecological niche divergence of four almond species and their environmental drivers.

Important findings The total length of the ITS1-ITS4 fragment after corrected alignment was 634 bp, 27 nucleotide variants detected, and a total of 28 haplotypes were identified. The minimum genetic distance among the four almond species is greater than the maximum genetic distance within species, and there are significant genetic differentiations among species. The haplotypes of the four almond species clustered into two branches: A. ledebouriana, A. mongolicaand A. tanguticafor one clade, and A. pedunculatafor the other. The revealed dendrogram relationship of haplotype network and PCoA analysis is consistent with the phylogenetic tree. The significant niche divergence was observed between A. tangutica and A. mongolica, as well as between A. tangutica and A. pedunculata, with annual mean temperature, max temperature of warmest month, min temperature of coldest month and precipitation of warmest quarter as key drivers of niche divergence.

Key words: wild almond species, ITS sequences, phylogeny, species differentiation, niche divergence