Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2013, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (11): 998-1009.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2013.00103

Previous Articles     Next Articles

Phenotypic variations in cones and seeds of natural Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis populations in Yunnan Province, China

LI Shuai-Feng1,2,SU Jian-Rong1,2,*(),LIU Wan-De1,2,LANG Xue-Dong1,2,ZHANG Zhi-Jun1,2,SU Lei1,2,JIA Cheng-Xin-Zhuo1,2,YANG Hua-Jing3   

  1. 1Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650224, China
    2The Pu’er Forest Eco-system Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Kunming 650224, China
    3Forestry Research Institute of Pu’er Municipality, Pu’er, Yunnan 665000, China
  • Received:2013-07-24 Accepted:2013-09-25 Online:2013-07-24 Published:2013-11-06
  • Contact: SU Jian-Rong


Aims Our objectives were to determine phenotypic variations in 11 natural Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis populations and their relationship with distributions.
Methods We investigated 16 phenotypic traits for 330 individuals in 11 natural populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis in Yunnan Province, and used nested analysis, variation coefficient, correlation analysis, and un-weighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis to analyze results.
Important findings There are significant differences in phenotypic variation among and within populations. Variation is greater within populations (54.76%) than among populations (10.44%). Mean phenotypic differentiation coefficient is 11.95% among populations. Differentiations among populations are relatively small. The average variation coefficient of seed weight is highest (35.51%), followed by cone weight (35.1%); the average variation coefficient of seed size is smallest (8.86%). The seed size is the most stable phenotypic traits. Phenotypic diversity is greatest in Jinggu County and smallest in Jinghong City. There are significant or highly significant correlations among most phenotypic traits in cones and seed, indicating that greater the cone length and cone weight, larger the seed scales, seed size, seed wing, 1000 seeds weight, and the number of seed scales and seeds per cone. The mean annual temperature appears to be the most prominent ecological factor influencing phenotypic traits, followed by the January mean temperature and growing degree days at >5 °C. According to UPGMA cluster analysis, the 11 populations can be divided into two groups and four subgroups due to difference in geographic distance, which is significantly related to annual precipitation and growing degree days at >5 °C.

Key words: cone, correlation analysis, phenotypic differentiation, phenotypic variation, Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis, seed