Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 348-358.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0236

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Shrub encroachment effect on the evapotranspiration and its component—A numerical simulation study of a shrub encroachment grassland in Nei Mongol, China

Qi-Dan WANG1, Wen-Xin YANG1, Jie-Yu HUANG1, Kun XU1, Pei WANG1,2,*()   

  1. 1School of Natural Resources, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    and
    2State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Online:2017-04-12 Published:2017-03-10
  • Contact: Pei WANG E-mail:peiwang@bnu.edu.cn
  • About author:

    KANG Jing-yao(1991-), E-mail: kangjingyao_nj@163.com

Abstract:

Aims Shrub encroachment is a common global change phenomenon occurring in arid and semi-arid regions. Due to the difficulty of partitioning evapotranspiration into shrub plants, grass plants and soil in the field, there are few studies focusing on shrub encroachment effect on the evapotranspiration and its component in China. This study aims to illustrate shrub encroachment effect on evapotranspiration by the numerical modeling method. Methods A two-source model was applied and calibrated with the measured evapotranspiration (ET) by the Bowen ratio system to simulate evapotranspiration and its component in a shrub encroachment grassland in Nei Mongol, China. Based on the calibrated model and previous shrub encroachment investigation, we set three scenarios of shrub encroachment characterized by relative shrub coverage of 5%, 15% and 30%, respectively, and quantified their effects caused by shrub encroachment through localized and calibrated two-source model.Important findings The two-source model can well reconstruct the evapotranspiration characteristics of a shrub encroachment grassland. Sensitivity analysis of the model shows that errors for the input variables and parameters have small influence on the result of partitioning evapotranspiration. The result shows that shrub encroachment has relatively small influence on the total amount of ET, but it has clear influence on the proportion of the components of evapotranspiration (E/ET). With shrub coverage increasing from 5% to 15% and then 30%, the evapotranspiration decreased from 182.97 to 180.38 and 176.72 W·m-2, decreasing amplitude values of 0.34% and 0.44%, respectively. On average, E/ET rises from 52.9% to 53.9% and 55.5%, increasing amplitude values to 2.04% and 3.25%. Data analysis indicates that shrub encroachment results in smaller soil moisture changes, but clear changes of ecosystem structure (decreasing ecosystem leaf area index while increasing vegetation height) which lead to the decrease of transpiration fraction through decreasing canopy conductance. The research highlights that, with the shrub encroachment, more water will be consumed as soil evaporation which is often regarded as invalid part of evapotranspiration and thus resulting in the decrease of water use efficiency.

Key words: shrub encroachment, eco-hydrological effect, evapotranspiration, two-source model, numerical simulation

Table 1

List of input variables, parameters, and outputs for the two-source model"

输入变量 Input variables 参数 Parameter 参数物理意义 Physical meaning of parameters 单位 Unit
气象数据 Meteorological data Sd 向下短波辐射 Downward short-wave radiation, W·m-2
ha 相对湿度 Relative humidity %
Ld 向下长波辐射 Downward long-wave radiation W·m-2
P 大气压 Air pressure hPa
Ta 气温 Air temperature
u 水平风速 Horizontal wind speed m·s-1
植被属性 Vegetation property LAI 叶面积指数 Leaf area index m-2·m-2
Zv 植被高度 Vegetation height m
土壤属性 Soil property Tsoil 土壤热通量测量深度土壤温度 Soil temperature at depth Zsoil
θ 根系层土壤含水量 Volumetric soil water content of root layer m-3·m-3
常数 Constant CLAI 冠层集聚度 Clumping factor for permittivity of canopy 无量纲 Dimensionless
θs 土壤饱和含水量 Saturated soil water content m-3·m-3
rst_min 最小气孔阻抗 Minimum stomata resistance s·m-1
rst_max 最大气孔阻抗 Maximum stomata resistance s·m-1
Zsoil 土壤热通量测量深度 Depth of ground heat flux measurement m
αG 地表反照率 Albedo of ground surface 无量纲 Dimensionless
αV 植被冠层反照率 Albedo of vegetation canopy 无量纲 Dimensionless
λss 土壤表层热传导系数 Thermal conductivity of surface soil W·m-1·K-1
能量通量输出 Output energy flux σ 斯蒂芬玻尔兹曼常数 Stefan-Boltzmann constant W·m-2·K-4
lET 潜热通量 Latent heat flux W·m-2
植被冠层输出
Output vegetation canopy layer
TL 植被冠层温度 Vegetation canopy temperature
T 植物蒸散量 Plant evapotranspiration kg·m-2·s-1
土壤层输出 Output of soil layer TG 10 cm土壤温度 Soil temperature at 10 cm depth
E 土壤蒸发量 Soil transpiration kg·m-2·s-1

Table 2

Summary of measured soil moisture in shrub and grassland patches and representation of averaged soil water in each scenarios of shrub encroachment under each observation day"

日期
Date
土壤水观测深度
Depth of observed soil moisture (cm)
灌丛斑块观测土壤体积含水量
Observed multilayer
volumetric soil moisture at the shrub patches (%)
草地斑块观测土壤体积含水量
Observed multilayer
volumetric soil moisture at the grass patches (%)
灌丛可利用的土壤体积含水量
Available volumetric water content by shrub (%)
草本可利用土
壤体积含水量
Available soil volumetric water content by
grass (%)
不同灌丛化情景下植被可利用土壤体积含水量
Available volumetric water content by plant under three scenarios of shrub encroachment (%)
5%盖度
5% coverage
15%盖度
15% coverage
30%盖度
30% coverage
6月16日
June 16th
0-10 30.1 30.0 18.1 22.6 22.42 21.97 21.30
10-20 22.2 22.6
20-40 10.0 8.8
40-60 10.7 9.8
60-100 17.7 15.5
7月14日
July 14th
0-10 9.3 9.4 11.6 9.0 9.0 9.3 9.7
10-20 10.2 9.0
20-40 8.1 8.3
40-60 13.3 8.1
60-100 17.0 12.7
8月11日
Aug. 11th
0-10 8.9 7.9 9.7 7.4 7.5 7.8 8.1
10-20 8.6 7.4
20-40 6.9 7.3
40-60 8.8 7.7
60-100 15.4 11.8
9月13日
Sept. 13th
0-10 8.7 8.8 11.2 8.5 8.6 8.9 9.3
10-20 8.8 8.5
20-40 9.1 10.4
40-60 12.1 12.4
60-100 17.5 15.9

Fig. 1

Weighted mean leaf area index, vegetation height and volumetric water content in soil of grassland ecosystem under three shrub encroachment scenarios."

Fig. 2

Comparison of evapotranspiration (express as latent heat flux) between measured by the energy balanced Bowen ratio system and predicted during measurement period."

Table 3

Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the sensitivity coefficients (Si) of evapotranspiration (ET) and transpiration fraction (T/ET) to the assigned model parameters and measured parameters (mean ± SD)"

参数符号 Parameter code 参数名称 Parameter name lET T/ET
rst_min 最小气孔阻抗 Minimum stomata resistance -0.28 ± 0.14 -0.08 ± 0.02
rst_max 最大气孔阻抗 Maximum stomata resistance -0.01 ± 0.08 0.00 ± 0.01
αV 植被冠层反照率 Albedo of vegetation canopy -0.17 ± 0.23 -0.02 ± 0.03
αG 地表反照率 Albedo of ground surface -0.01 ± 0.06 0.01 ± 0.01
CLAI 冠层集聚度 Clumping factor for permittivity of vegetation 0.02 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.03
λss 土壤表层热传导系数 Thermal conductivity of surface soil -0.05 ± 0.02 0.06 ± 0.02
Sd 向下短波辐射 Downward short-wave radiation, 0.72 ± 0.31 0.00 ± 0.20
Ld 向下长波辐射 Downward long-wave radiation 0.84 ± 0.58 -0.03 ± 0.04
u 水平风速 Horizontal wind speed 0.08 ± 0.15 0.00 ± 0.03
Ta 气温 Air temperature 0.74 ± 0.64 0.21 ± 0.19
ha 相对湿度 Relative humidity -1.31 ± 1.02 0.12 ± 0.22
P 大气压 Air pressure -0.04 ± 0.15 -0.01 ± 0.03
LAI 叶面积指数 Leaf area index 0.42 ± 0.26 0.26 ± 0.25
Zv 植被高度 Vegetation height 0.23 ± 0.53 0.03 ± 0.09
Tsoil 土壤热通量测量深度土壤温度 Soil temperature at depth Zsoil 0.24 ± 0.14 -0.17 ± 0.10
θ 土壤体积含水量 Volumetric soil water content 0.42 ± 0.43 0.12 ± 0.11

Fig. 3

The temporal series of evapotranspiration under three shrub encroachment scenarios. For each day, there is hourly- mean evapotranspiration from 9:00 to 16:00."

Fig. 4

The temporal series of evapotranspiration components (T/ET) under three shrub encroachment scenarios. For each day, there is hourly-mean T/ET from 9:00 to 16:00."

Table 4

Statistics data of precipitation and transpiration fraction (T/ET) in each observation day"

6月10日
June 10th
6月11日
June 11th
6月13日
June 13th
7月8日
July 8th
7月9日
July 9th
7月13日
July 13th
7月8日
July 8th
8月13日
Aug. 13th
8月17日
Aug. 17th
9月3日
Sept. 3rd
降水量
Precipitation (mm)
6.6 6.6 6.6 14.4 14.4 1.2 6.2 1.2 6 0.2
降雨时间间隔
Interval between rainfall events (d)
1 2 4 1 2 2 1 1 1 2
月降水量 Monthly
precipitation (mm)
135.6 135.6 135.6 142.3 142.3 142.3 80.9 80.9 80.9 51.3
蒸散比(平均值±日变化)
Transpiration fraction
(mean ± diurnal variation)
0.41 ± 0.01 0.39 ± 0.01 0.47 ± 0.01 0.55 ± 0.02 0.57 ± 0.03 0.56 ± 0.02 0.42 ± 0.04 0.41 ± 0.05 0.40 ± 0.01 0.45 ± 0.03
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