Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (4): 419-429.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2017.0272

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Species composition and community structure of a 20 hm2 plot of mid-mountain moist evergreen broad-leaved forest on the Mts. Ailaoshan, Yunnan Province, China

Han-Dong WEN1,2,Lu-Xiang LIN1,Jie YANG1,Yue-Hua HU1,Min CAO1*(),Yu-Hong LIU1,2,Zhi-Yun LU1,2,You-Neng XIE3   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
    2 Ailaoshan Station for Subtropical Forest Ecosystem Studies, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jingdong, Yunnan 676209, China
    3 Jingdong Administration Bureau of Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan National Nature Reserves, Jingdong, Yunnan 676209, China
  • Online:2018-06-01 Published:2018-04-20

Abstract:

Aims The mid-mountain moist evergreen broad-leaved forest is a montane forest vegetation type developed in the subtropical climate zones of China. However, the community structure of the forest has never been reported based on large sized plots. The present study investigated the tree species composition and community structure within a 20 hm 2 plot, serving as the fundamentals for analyzing the relationships between environmental factors and spatial distribution of tree species, and a basic platform for monitoring long-term forest dynamics in the future.

Methods We established a 20 hm2 plot in a forest at Xujiaba on Mts. Ailaoshan, Jingdong County, Yunnan Province in 2014. The plot was set up in accordance to the protocols of the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS). All free-standing woody plants with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 1 cm were positioned, mapped, tagged, measured and identified to species in the plot.

Important findings A total of 44 168 free-standing individuals with DBH ≥ 1 cm were recorded, belonging to 104 species, 63 genera and 36 families. Trees of Fagaceae, Theaceae and Lauraceae are dominant species. At the level of genus, the floristic composition was primarily represented by both tropical (46.0%) and temperate (38.1%) elements. The 22 individual species with importance value ≥ 1 contributed 84.6% to the total abundance. The three most abundant species were Camellia forrestii, Vaccinium duclouxii and Symplocos ramosissima. Four tree species (Lithocarpus hancei, L. xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii and Schima noronhae) had the largest basal areas, and they were also the dominant canopy tree species in the plot. The DBH distribution of all individuals in the plot showed a reversed “J” pattern, indicating numerous recruiting populations. Such a pattern was applicable to C. forrestii and S. ramosissima as well. Forty-nine rare species (those with individual number fewer than 20 in the plot) accounted for 47.1% of the species total. Evergreen species dominated the life form spectrum of the plot, making up for 94.7%, 96.2% and 94.0% in terms of importance value, total abundance and total basal area, respectively.

Key words: mid-mountain moist evergreen broad-leaved forest, Mts. Ailaoshan, species diversity, floristic characteristics, size class structure

Fig. 1

The topographic map of Ailaoshan forest dynamics plot."

Table 1

Top ten families with the highest importance values in Ailaoshan forest dynamics plot"

序号 Rank 科名 Family 树种数
No. of
species
属数
No. of
genera
个体数
No. of
individuals
胸高断面积
Basal area
(cm²)
相对多样性
Relative
diversity
相对密度
Relative
density
相对优势度
Relative abundance
科的重要值
Importance value
of the family
1 壳斗科 Fagaceae 8 3 6 321 7 066 975.19 7.92 14.31 57.94 80.18
2 茶科 Theaceae 7 6 10 466 1 508 836.26 6.93 23.70 12.37 43.00
3 樟科 Lauraceae 10 5 3 833 682 608.98 9.90 8.68 5.60 24.18
4 蔷薇科 Rosaceae 14 10 2 807 407 326.40 13.86 6.36 3.34 23.56
5 山矾科 Symplocaceae 5 1 7 026 287 828.73 4.95 15.91 2.36 23.22
6 越桔科 Vacciniaceae 3 1 4 861 528 954.35 2.97 11.01 4.34 18.31
7 杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 6 3 2 501 495 485.15 5.94 5.66 4.06 15.67
8 冬青科 Aquifoliaceae 6 1 2 059 445 327.40 5.94 4.66 3.65 14.25
9 木兰科 Magnoliaceae 3 2 913 217 984.99 2.97 2.07 1.79 6.82
10 忍冬科 Caprifoliaceae 4 1 84 4 286.15 3.96 0.19 0.04 4.19
合计 Total 66 33 40 871 11 645 613.60 65.34 92.55 95.49 253.38

Table 2

Abundance and basal area of the tree species with individuals >1 000 in Ailaoshan forest dynamics plot"

序号
Rank
种名
Species
个体数
Abundance
分枝数
Ramifications
平均胸径
Mean of DBH (cm)
胸高断面积
Basal area (m2)
1 蒙自连蕊茶 Camellia forrestii 6 387 5 847 3.42 15.95
2 云南越桔 Vaccinium duclouxii 4 843 6 101 6.52 52.67
3 多花山矾 Symplocos ramosissima 3 000 272 4.41 15.37
4 硬斗柯 Lithocarpus hancei 2 558 4 195 16.81 288.69
5 南亚枇杷 Eriobotrya bengalensis 2 368 229 9.40 27.27
6 变色锥 Castanopsis wattii 2 008 1 140 20.28 195.83
7 山矾 Symplocos sumuntia 1 840 452 4.26 9.46
8 丛花山矾 Symplocos poilanei 1 551 657 2.68 2.08
9 木果柯 Lithocarpus xylocarpus 1 540 777 28.99 210.85
10 云南柃 Eurya obliquifolia 1 446 737 3.53 3.33
11 滇润楠 Machilus yunnanensis 1 236 338 8.58 21.88
12 舟柄茶 Hartia sinensis 1 118 249 13.26 29.95
合计 Total 29 895 20 994 122.13 873.33

Fig. 2

Cumulative distribution curve of species abundance in Ailaoshan forest dynamics plot."

Table 3

Distribution patterns of genera of seed plants in Ailaoshan forest dynamics plot"

序号 Rank 分布区类型 Areal-type 属数 No. of genera 百分比 Percentage
1 世界广布 Widespread 3 4.76
2 泛热带 Pantropic 7 11.11
3
东亚(热带、亚热带) 及热带南美间断
East Asia (Tropical & Subtropical) & Tropical South America disjuncted
7
11.11
4 热带亚洲至热带大洋洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Australasia Oceania 2 3.17
5 热带亚洲至热带非洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 1 1.59
6
热带亚洲(热带东南亚至印度-马来, 太平洋诸岛)
Tropical Asia (Tropical Southeast Asia to Indo-Malaya & Tropical Southwest Pacific Islands)
12
19.05
热带成分(2-6)小计 Tropical elements (2-6) sub-total 29 46.03
7 北温带 North Temperate 14 22.22
8 东亚及北美间断 East Asia & North America disjuncted 8 12.70
9 旧世界温带 Old World Temperate 2 3.17
温带成分(7-9)小计 Tropical elements(7-9) sub-total 24 38.10
10 东亚 East Asia 7 11.11
合计 Total 63 100.00

Table 4

Top ten tree species with the highest importance values in Ailaoshan forest dynamics plot"

序号 Rank 种名 Species 个体数
No. of individuals
相对密度
Relative density
相对频度
Relative frequency
相对显著度
Relative prominence
重要值
Importance value
1 蒙自连蕊茶 Camellia forrestii 6 387 14.46 5.11 0.01 6.53
2 云南越桔 Vaccinium duclouxii 4 843 10.96 4.27 0.04 5.09
3 多花山矾 Symplocos ramosissima 3 000 6.79 4.14 0.01 3.65
4 硬斗柯 Lithocarpus hancei 2 558 5.79 4.58 0.24 3.53
5 变色锥 Castanopsis wattii 2 008 4.55 4.87 0.16 3.19
6 南亚枇杷 Eriobotrya bengalensis 2 368 5.36 3.98 0.02 3.12
7 木果柯 Lithocarpus xylocarpus 1 540 3.49 4.58 0.17 2.75
8 山矾 Symplocos sumuntia 1 840 4.17 3.62 0.01 2.60
9 滇润楠 Machilus yunnanensis 1 236 2.80 4.48 0.02 2.43
10 丛花山矾 Symplocos poilanei 1 551 3.51 3.06 0.00 2.19
合计 Total 27 331 61.88 42.69 0.68 35.08

Fig. 3

Species-area curve and individual-area curve in Ailaoshan forest dynamics plot. CI, confidence interval."

Fig. 4

Diameter at breast height (DBH)-class distribution of all individuals and dominant species in Ailaoshan forest dynamics plot. A, All individuals. B, Vaccinium duclouxii. C, Camellia forrestii. D, Symplocos ramosissima. E, Lithocarpus hancei. F, Lithocarpus xylocarpus. G, Castanopsis wattii. H, Schima noronhae."

Table 5

Comparison on the major characteristics between Ailaoshan forest dynamics plot and other three evergreen broad-leaved forest dynamics plots in eastern China"

样地名称
Name of
plot
经纬度
Longitude,
Latitude
平均海拔
Average
altitude
(m)
年平均气温
Mean annual air temp-
erature
(℃)
年降水
Annual precipi-
tation
(mm)
样地面积
Area of
plot
(hm2)
物种数量
No. of
species
个体数量
No. of free
standing
stems
稀有种
数量/比例
No. and
percentage
of rare
species
落叶树种
数量/比例
No. and percentage
of deciduous
tree species
平均每公顷的胸高断面积
Average area of stems at breast height per hm2
(m2·hm-2)
数据来源
Reference
哀牢山
Ailaoshan
101.03°-
101.03° E, 24.53°-
24.54° N
2 550 11.3 1 778 20 104 44 168 49/47.1% 23/22.8% 61.0 本研究
This study
天童山
Tiantongshan
121.86°-
122.03° E, 29.99°-
30.06° N
447 20 152 94 603 55/36.2% 69/42.8% Yang et al., 2011
古田山Gutianshan 118.12°-
118.23° E, 29.28°-
29.35° N
581 15.3 1 964 24 159 140 700 59/37.1% 79/49.7% 36.9 Zhu et al., 2008
鼎湖山
Dinghushan
112.51°-
112.56° E, 23.16°-
23.19° N
350 20.9 1 985 20 210 71 617 110/52.3% 30.2 Ye et al., 2008
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