Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (9): 753-761.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0161

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Species distribution and community assembly rules of Juglans mandshurica in North China

TANG Li-Li1,ZHANG Mei1,ZHAO Xiang-Lin1,KANG Mu-Yi2,3,LIU Hong-Yan4,GAO Xian-Ming5,YANG Tong1,ZHENG Pu-Fan1,SHI Fu-Chen1,*()   

  1. 1College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
    2State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3College of Resources Science & Technology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    4Institute of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    5State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
  • Received:2018-07-07 Accepted:2018-12-13 Online:2020-01-03 Published:2019-09-20
  • Contact: SHI Fu-Chen
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Basic Work of Science and Technology of China(2011FY110300)


Aims Explore the distribution pattern and the processes controlling the assembly of the Juglans mandshurica dominated forests in North China.
Methods We investigated 84 plots, each with an area of 20 m × 30 m, for the J. mandshurica forests in the North China. We analyzed demography of the J. mandshurica based on its diameters, and applied canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to explore the relationship between environment and species composition of different formations of the J. mandshurica forests. We then calculated phylogenetic index, i.e., net relatedness index (NRI) and nearest taxonomic index (NTI) and Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation (Gaussian KDE), for each plot to explore the rules controlling community assembly of these forests.
Important findings
The population of J. mandshurica is relatively young in the Northern China, with a mean diameters at breast height (DBH) of 5.36 cm. Distribution of J. mandshurica in North China varied significantly with altitude, slope, slope position and human disturbance. Most of the J. mandshurica located at the low part of the massif with lower altitude and less human disturbance. In North China, niche related processes regulated species coexistence of Form. J. mandshurica, with competition controlled the community assembly in Hebei, Shaanxi and Tianjin, while environment filtering dominated in Beijing and Shanxi.

Key words: Juglans mandshurica, distribution pattern, phylogeny, community assembly rules, plant community

Fig. 1

Sampling sites of Juglans mandshurica in North China."

Table 1

Juglans mandshurica’s population density and the numbers of each diameter classes in North China"

Diameter classes (cm )
1-3 109 12 17 7 11 18
3-5 58 38 110 44 1 3
5-7 90 30 0 46 1 1
7-9 104 10 0 22 0 1
9-11 56 5 0 2 0 3
11-13 11 5 0 1 0 0
13-15 5 0 0 0 0 3
15-17 0 0 0 0 0 2
>17 1 0 0 0 0 0
Population density (ind.·km-2)
14 25 53 23 6 9

Fig. 2

Diameter classification and quantity of Juglans mandshurica in North China."

Table 2

Correlation coefficients between distribution of Juglans mandshurica and environmental factors at the first fourth canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) ordination axes in North China"

Environmental factor
海拔 Elevation -0.95*** -0.06 -0.27* -0.02
坡度 Slop 0.57*** -0.54*** -0.39*** 0.28*
坡向 Aspect 0.13 0.30 0.57*** -0.49***
坡位 Slop position 0.45** -0.48*** -0.37*** -0.64***
人为干扰 Disturbance -0.17** -0.65*** 0.68*** -0.23
特征值 Eigenvalue 0.59*** 0.31*** 0.28*** 0.20***
Cumulative proportion
39.08% 59.52% 77.93% 91.39%

Fig. 3

Two-dimensional ordination diagram of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) between distribution of Juglans mandshurica and environmental factors in North China. Ele, elevation; Asp, aspect; Slo, slope; Slp, slop position; Dis, disturbance. ´, Beijing; °, Tianjin; ·, Hebei; , Henan; +, Shanxi; -, Shaanxi."

Table 3

Positive and negative area under curve of the net relatedness index (NRI) and net nearest taxa index (NTI) in five provinces"

北京 Beijing 河北 Hebei 山西 Shanxi 陕西 Shaanxi 天津
NRI <0 0.72 0.08 - 0.00 0.26
>0 0.28 0.92 - 1.00 0.74
NTI <0 0.86 0.08 - 0.00 0.20
>0 0.13 0.92 - 1.00 0.80

Fig. 4

Results of Gaussian kernel density estimation of phylogenetic index. NRI, net relatedness index; NTI, nearest taxonomic index."

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