Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 217-226.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0003

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity on the tropical cloud forest community assembly

CHENG Yi-Kang1,ZHANG Hui1,WANG Xu1,LONG Wen-Xing1,2,*(),LI Chao1,FANG Yan-Shan3,FU Ming-Qi3,ZHU Kong-Xin4   

  1. 1 Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
    2 National Positioning Observation and Research Station of Forest Ecosystem, Wuzhishan, Hainan 572200, China
    3 Administration of Limushan Provincial Natural Reserve, Qiongzhong, Hainan 572900, China
    4 Forestry Bureau of Bawangling, Changjiang, Hainan 572700, China
  • Received:2019-01-04 Revised:2019-02-27 Online:2019-05-30 Published:2019-03-20
  • Contact: LONG Wen-Xing ORCID:0000-0002-9195-5878
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31660163);Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31870508);The Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province, China(312064);The Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province, China(2016CXTD003D)


Aims Phylogenetic and functional diversity are important components of species biodiversity, and are thought to play key roles in the mechanisms of community assembly. In this study, we explore the mechanisms of community assembly in tropical cloud forest plant community in Hainan Island, in southern China, using phylogenetic and functional diversity based methods.

Methods We constructed a species pool of 186 woody plant species from three tropical cloud forest sites in Hainan Island. For these species, we measured 13 functional traits and assessed their phylogenetic signals. In addition, we measured seven environmental factors and assessed their relationships using Principal component analysis (PCA). Then we chose Rao’s quadratic entropy (RaoQ) and mean pairwise distance (MPD) indices to examine the effects of functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity on tropical cloud forest community assembly. To do this we compared these indices to expectations under null models that assume neutral community assembly. We used standard effect sizes to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on community assembly.

Important findings Canopy openness, soil total phosphorus content and slope were significant environmental predictors in tropical cloud forest. The phylogenetic signals of most functional traits were very low and not significant, indicating that the phylogenetic relationship and functional traits were not consistent with the change of historical process. The observed values of RaoQ and MPD were significantly lower than expected, and their standard effect sizes were significantly correlated with soil phosphorus content, which suggested that habitat filtering driven by soil phosphorus was the key factor driving the community assembly in tropical cloud forest.

Key words: community assembly, functional diversity, phylogenetic diversity, environment factor, tropical cloud forest

Fig. 1

Distribution of the tropical cloud forest study sites in Hainan Island."

Table 1

Information on the study sites in the tropical cloud forest in Hainan Island"

Study site
Elevation (m)
Longitude (E)
Latitude (N)
Slope (°)
No. of plots
Plot area (m2)
Dominant species
Jianfeng Mt.
1 187.17-
1 397.19
108.87° 18.72° 10-65 12 4 800 罗浮锥、丛花厚壳桂、美丽新木姜子、黄叶树 Castanopsis faberi, Cryptocarya densiflora, Neolitsea pulchella, Xanthophyllum hainanense
Bawang Mt.
1 313.24-
1 385.24
109.21° 19.08° 2-45 21 8 400 蚊母树、赤楠、九节、黄杞
Distylium racemosum, Syzygium buxifolium,
Psychotria rubra, Engelhardtia roxburghiana
Limu Mt.
1 363.73-
1 403.32
109.76° 19.18° 3-42 15 6 000 普洱茶、岭南青冈、罗浮锥、细枝柃
Camellia sinensis var. assamica, Cyclobalanopsis championii, Castanopsis faberi, Eurya loquaiana

Table 2

Principle component analysis (PCA) among environment factors in tropical cloud forest"

环境变量 Environmental variable PCA1 PCA2 PCA3 PCA4
林冠开阔度 CO (%) -0.33 - 0.89 -0.24
土壤有机质含量 SOM (g·kg-1) -0.35 0.47 -0.23 -0.34
全磷含量 TP (g·kg-1) -0.50 - - 0.31
全氮含量 TN (g·kg-1) -0.47 -0.11 -0.32 -0.15
有效氮含量 AN (mg·kg-1) -0.47 -0.19 -0.19 -0.19
有效磷含量 AP (mg·kg-1) 0.24 0.59 - -0.48
坡度 SP (o) 0.13 -0.61 - -0.66
特征值 Characteristic value 3.32 1.87 0.48 0.17
解释方差比例 Explained variance proportion 0.52 0.27 0.10 0.07
累积解释方差比例 Cumulative explained variance proportion 0.52 0.79 0.89 0.96

Fig. 2

Correlation analysis among environmental factors of Hainan tropical cloud forests. CO, canopy openness; SOM, soil organic matter content; TP, total phosphorus content; TN, total nitrogen content; AN, available nitrogen content; AP, available phosphorus content; SP, slope. *, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001."

Table 3

Phylogenetic signal of plants functional traits in tropical cloud forest"

功能性状 Functional trait K p
根部氮含量 Root nitrogen content (RN) 0.258 0.639
根部磷含量 Root phosphorus content (RP) 0.405 0.193
根部可溶性糖含量 Root soluble sugar content (RS) 0.210 0.820
叶片氮含量 Leaf nitrogen content (LN) 0.677 0.027
叶片磷含量 Leaf phosphorus content (LP) 0.579 0.055
叶片可溶性糖含量 Leaf soluble sugar content (LS) 0.190 0.857
茎干氮含量 Stem nitrogen content (SN) 0.448 0.195
茎干磷含量 Stem phosphorus content (SP) 4.258 0.005
茎干可溶性糖含量 Stem soluble sugar content (SS) 0.314 0.429
比叶面积 Specific leaf area (SLA) 0.373 0.413
叶绿素含量 Chlorophyll content (Chl) 0.459 0.062
叶片厚度 Leaf thickness (LTh) 0.282 0.589
木材密度 Wood density (WD) 0.294 0.527

Fig. 3

Comparison of functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity expectations with observed values in tropical cloud forest. The null distribution is the grey histogram and the observed values are the black vertical bars. MPD, mean pairwise distance; RaoQ, Rao’s quadratic entropy."

Fig. 4

Patterns of standard effect size of Rao’s quadratic entropy (SES.RaoQ) along environmental gradients in tropical cloud forest. CO, canopy openness; TP, total phosphorus content; SP, slope."

Fig. 5

Patterns of net relatedness index (NRI) along environmental gradients in tropical cloud forest. CO, canopy openness; TP, total phosphorus content; SP, slope."

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