Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2013, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (7): 641-649.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2013.00066

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Diadelphous stamens in Glycyrrhiza glabra: their development and adaptive significance

TIAN Run-Wei1, LU Jia-Hui1,2,3*, LI Xue-Yu3, YU Ying1, XIE Liang-Bi1, and QIN Zhong-Li1   

  1. 1College of Life Sciences, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003, China;

    2The Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-agriculture Xinjiang Production and Construction Group, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003, China;

    3Institute of Licorice in Shihezi University, Shihezi , Xinjiang 832003, China
  • Received:2013-01-16 Revised:2013-05-06 Online:2013-07-05 Published:2013-07-01
  • Contact: LU Jia-Hui


Aims The stamens of Glycyrrhiza species are diadelphous, with nine staminal filaments united at the base as a staminal sheath and separated in the upper portion of the staminal sheath. The arrayal shape of the nine stamens changes from two rows at an early stage to an inverted “V”-shaped arrangement at a later stage. Our objectives were to (1) describe development of the stamens in G. glabra (from the bud stage to full bloom) to determine differences in shape development, timing and position of stamens and (2) determine the functional role of long- and short-level stamens in the pollination processes and its adaptive significance.
Methods The development of stamens (measurement of the filament, anther, and style lengths at five developmental stages) and variability of timing and position of stamens were observed under a dissecting microscope. Scanning electron microscopy recorded pollen morphology. The vitality, quantity and chemical composition of pollen were counted and detected. In addition, the number of seeds following each pollination treatment and the pollinator behavior of insects on different stamen removal treatments were compared to examine differentiation of long- and short-level stamens.
Important findings There were differences between the long- and short-level stamens in filament length, anther size and shape early in development, but the differences disappeared when filaments elongated and mature pollen was released. The numbers of pollen grains and pollen vitality between the long- and short-level stamens were different later in development. However, no significant differences were observed in chemical composition of pollen and seed sets among different treatments. Emasculation of the long- and short-level stamens induced reductions in the visiting frequency, but the seed sets of emasculation were higher than without emasculation, which indicates that emasculation reduces the interference between stamens and stigma and improves the pollination rate. The arrayal shape of stamens changed from two rows early in time to an inverted “V”-shaped arrangement at a later stage and resulted in different quantity and vitality of pollen. This indicates that the flower of G. glabra uses fewer male resources to obtain the highest pollination efficiency and to improve male functionality.

[1]Albert S, Joshi A, Patel C (2009). Heteranthery in four tree species of Cassia. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 33, 285–288. Crossref
[2] Barrett SCH (2002). Sexual interference of the floral kind. Heredity, 88, 154–159. Crossref
[3] Barrett SCH (2003). Mating strategies in flowering plants: the outcrossing-selfing paradigm and beyond. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 358, 991–1004. Crossref
[4] Barrett SCH (2010). Darwin’s legacy: the forms, function and sexual diversity of flowers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365, 351–368. Crossref
[5] Dai C, Galloway LF (2011). Do dichogamy and herkogamy reduce sexual interference in a self-incompatible species? Functional Ecology, 25, 271–278. Crossref
[6] Darwin C (1877). The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species. John Murray, London. Crossref
[7] de Almeida NM, de Castro CC, de Lima Leite AV, Novo RR, Machado IC (2013). Enantiostyly in Chamaecrista ramosa (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae): floral morphology, pollen transfer dynamics and breeding system. Plant Biology, 15, 369–375. Crossref
[8] de Freitas Mansano V, de Souza AL (2005). A new Swartzia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Swartzieae) species with trimorphic stamens from Amazonian Brazil. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 147, 235–238. Crossref
[9] Foerste AF (1888). Notes on structures adapted to cross-fertilization. Botanical Gazette, 13, 151–156. Crossref
[10] Forbes HO (1882). Two kinds of stamens with different functions in the same flower. Nature, 26, 386. Crossref
[11] Kliber A, Eckert CG (2004). Sequential decline in allocation among flowers within inflorescences: proximate mechanisms and adaptive significance. Ecology, 85, 1675–1687. Crossref
[12] Liao YH (2011). A Study on Breeding System of Two Drug glycyrrhiza. Master degree dissertation, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang. 6–29. (in Chinese with English abstract) [廖云海 (2011). 两种药用甘草繁育系统的研究. 硕士论文, 石河子大学, 新疆石河子. 6–29.] Crossref
[13] Liao YH, Lu JH, Zhang JZ, Liu J, Li XY (2010). A preliminary study on the characteristics of reproductive biology of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 30, 939–943. (in Chinese with English abstract) [廖云海, 陆嘉惠, 张继昭, 刘静, 李学禹 (2010). 光果甘草生殖生物学特性的初步研究. 西北植物学报, 30, 939–943.] Crossref
[14] Liu SM (1996). Study on flowering behaviour and crossbreeding technique of alfafa. Grassland of China, (2), 7–11. (in Chinese with English abstract) [刘淑明 (1996). 苜蓿的开花习性及其杂交技术的研究. 中国草地, (2), 7–10.] Crossref
[15] Luo ZL, Zhang DX (2005). A review of heteranthery in flowering plants. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 13, 536–542. (in Chinese with English abstract) [罗中莱, 张奠湘 (2005). 异型雄蕊的研究进展. 热带亚热带植物学报, 13, 536–542.] Crossref
[16] Luo ZL, Zhang DX, Renner SS (2008). Why two kinds of stamens in buzz-pollinated flowers? Experimental support for Darwin’s division-of-labour hypothesis. Functional Ecology, 22, 794–800. Crossref
[17] Medrano M, Guitián P, Guitián J (2000). Patterns of fruit and seed set within inflorescences of Pancratium maritimum (Amaryllidaceae): nonuniform pollination, resource limitation, or architectural effects? American Journal of Botany, 87, 493–501. Crossref
[18] Morgan MT, Schoen DJ (1997). The role of theory in an emerging new plant reproductive biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 12, 231–234. Crossref
[19] Muchhala N, Brown Z, Armbruster WS, Potts MD (2010). Competition drives specialization in pollination systems through costs to male fitness. The American Naturalist, 176, 732–743. Crossref
[20] Proctor MCF, Yeo P, Lack A (1996). The Natural History of Pollination. Harper Collins Publishers, London. 294–295. Crossref
[21] Ren MX (2009). Intrafloral stamen differentiations and their adaptive significances. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 33, 222–236. (in Chinese with English abstract) [任明迅 (2009). 花内雄蕊分化及其适应意义. 植物生态学报, 33, 222–236.] Crossref
[22] Ren MX (2010). Stamen movements in hermaphroditic flowers: diversity and adaptive significance. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 34, 867–875. (in Chinese with English abstract) [任明迅 (2010). 两性花的雄蕊运动: 多样性和适应意义. 植物生态学报, 34, 867–875.] Crossref
[23] Ren MX, Jiang XH, Zhang DY (2012). Some important questions in plant reproductive ecology. Biodiversity Science, 20, 241–249. (in Chinese with English abstract) [任明迅, 姜新华, 张大勇 (2012). 植物繁殖生态学的若干重要问题. 生物多样性, 20, 241–249.] Crossref
[24] Tian RW, Lu JH, Xie LB, Qin ZL, Li XY (2012). Effect of flowering mode and pollination on reproductive success and the relationship between Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 32, 2004–2008. (in Chinese with English abstract) [田润炜, 陆嘉惠, 谢良碧, 秦忠立, 李学禹 (2012). 光果甘草与乌拉尔甘草开花与传粉方式对生殖及种间关系的影响. 西北植物学报, 32, 2004–2008.] Crossref
[25] Torres MW, Aximoff IA, Ferreira MHS, Guerra TJ (2007). Aspects of floral biology of buzz pollinated Senna cana (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a rupestrian field in Mucugê, BA. 1575.pdf. Cited: Jan. 2013. Crossref
[26] Wang XJ, Zhang LC, Zhao ZG (2010). The pattern of seed reproduction and its response to resources in Pedicularis semitorta individuals. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 19, 236–242. (in Chinese with English abstract) [王晓娟, 张龙冲, 赵志刚 (2010). 半扭卷马先蒿个体内的种子生产模式及其对资源的响应. 草业学报, 19, 236–242.] Crossref
[27] Weigend M, Ackermann M, Henning T (2010). Reloading the revolver-male fitness as a simple explanation for complex reward partitioning in Nasa macrothyrsa (Loasaceae, Cornales). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 100, 124–131. Crossref
[28] Wu GF, Feng ZJ, Ma WL, Zhou XJ, Lang KC, Hu RL, Wang CZ, Li RG (1992). Botany 2nd edn. China Higher Education Press, Beijing. 272. (in Chinese) [吴国芳, 冯志坚, 马炜梁, 周秀佳, 郎奎昌, 胡人亮, 王策箴, 李茹光 (1992). 植物学. 第二版. 高等教育出版社, 北京. 272.] Crossref
[29] Zhang DY (2004). Plant Life-History Evolution and Reproductive Ecology. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese) [张大勇 (2004). 植物生活史进化与繁殖生态学. 科学出版社, 北京.] Crossref
No related articles found!
Full text



[1] Lu Zhong-shu. Plant Growth Regutators in Relation to Plant Water Status[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1985, 3(04): 1 -6 .
[2] Li Da Jue;Han Yun-zhou and Wan Li-ping. Studies on Germplasm Collections of Carthamus tinctorius IV Screening of the characterization of Seed Domancy[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1990, 7(02): 50 -52 .
[3] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(增刊): 45 -46 .
[4] LU Jin-Yao;LUO Ai-Ling and LIANG Zheng. Some Improvement of TD-PAGE Technology[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(03): 69 -72 .
[5] LI Ling-Hao and CHEN Zuo-Zhong. The Global Carbon Cycle in Grassland Ecosystems and Its Responses to Global Change I . Carbon Flow Compartment Model, Inputs and Storage[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(02): 14 -22 .
[6] Huanhuan Xu, Jian Kang, Mingxiang Liang. Research Advances in the Metabolism of Fructan in Plant Stress Resistance[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2014, 49(2): 209 -220 .
[7] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2013, 48(1): 4 -5 .
[8] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1996, 13(专辑): 45 .
[9] SHU Qun-Fang;ZHOU Lu;LI Wen-Bin;ZHANG LI-Ming and SUN Yong-Ru. Study on Gel Electrophoresis of Protein from Plant and Our Improved Methods[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(06): 73 -78 .