植物生态学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (7): 601-610.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0053

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国归化植物组成特征及其时空分布格局分析

许光耀1,李洪远1,*(),莫训强2,孟伟庆2   

  1. 1南开大学环境科学与工程学院, 天津 300350
    2天津师范大学城市与环境科学学院, 天津 300382
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-12 接受日期:2019-07-04 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-12-12
  • 通讯作者: 李洪远
  • 基金资助:
    天津市重大科技专项与工程(18ZXSZSF00200)

Composition and spatial-temporal distribution of Chinese naturalized plants

XU Guang-Yao1,LI Hong-Yuan1,*(),MO Xun-Qiang2,MENG Wei-Qing2   

  1. 1College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China
    2College of Urban and Environmental Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300382, China
  • Received:2019-03-12 Accepted:2019-07-04 Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-12-12
  • Contact: LI Hong-Yuan
  • Supported by:
    Supported by Science and Technology Major Project of Tianjin(18ZXSZSF00200)

摘要:

入侵植物是归化植物的子集, 归化是植物入侵的基本前提, 完整的归化植物清单有助于预测和预防植物入侵。该文基于实地调查和资料收集, 对中国归化植物种类及分布进行统计, 结果表明, 当前中国共有归化植物112科578属1 099种, 约70%为人为引入, 而美洲是其最大原产地, 植物生活型以草本为主, 分类学组成中菊科、禾本科、豆科最多。在空间尺度上, 物种多样性及密度均呈自东南沿海向西北内陆递减的趋势, 纬度和国内生产总值是其空间分布格局的主要驱动因素, 被殖民史、植物园分布及调查次数在一定程度上影响空间分布格局; 在时间尺度上, 归化植物物种多样性当前正处在快速增长阶段并可能持续20-30年, 社会经济发展、人为干扰、土地利用方式改变及全球变化是其主要驱动因素。该研究丰富了中国归化植物的本底资料, 有助于了解外来植物入侵的形式与威胁, 并为外来植物综合管控或本地生物多样性保护提供依据。

关键词: 生物入侵, 外来植物, 物种组成, 分布特征, 驱动因素

Abstract:

Aims Invasive plants are a subset of naturalized plants, and naturalization is a fundamental precondition for plant invasion and so compiling a complete inventory of naturalized alien species is necessary for predicting and hence preventing such invasion.
Methods Based on field investigations and various literature reports, we compiled a nationwide list of the naturalized plant species of China.
Important findings The results showed that there are 1 099 naturalized plants belonging to 112 families and 578 genera in China, 70% of them were introduced intentionally and were of American origin, followed by those with European origins, herbs were prevalent among naturalized species. Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae were the three most dominant families. Spatially, species diversity and density decreased from the southeast coast to inland northwest. Latitude and gross domestic product is the primary driver of this pattern, however, colonial history, distribution of botanical gardens and the number of surveys may also affect formation. In temporal terms, species diversity is currently in a period of rapid growth and will continue for 20 to 30 years. Social and economic development, human disturbance, land use and global change are the main drivers. This study enriches the background information about naturalized plants and improves our knowledge on threats associated with plant invasions in China. The gained information can be used to provide arguments for efforts on control and management of alien plants or conservation of native biodiversity in the country.

Key words: biological invasion, alien plants, species composition, distribution characteristics, driving factors