Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (10): 1060-1068.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2017.0021

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Warming impacts on the dry matter accumulation, and translocation and nitrogen uptake and utilization of winter wheat on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

Cheng-Yan ZHENG1, Ai-Xing DENG1, Hojatollah LATIFMANESH1, Zhen-Wei SONG1, Jun ZHANG1, Li WANG2, Wei-Jian ZHANG1,*()   

  1. 1Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology & Ecology, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China;
    and
    2Tibet Vocational Technical College, Lhasa 850000, China
  • Online:2017-12-24 Published:2017-10-10
  • Contact: Wei-Jian ZHANG E-mail:zhangweijian@caas.cn

Abstract:

Aims Global warming is expected to be the strongest in high altitude mountainous areas, which are more ecologically fragile and economically marginalized. The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is among such areas most vulnerable to global warming, and more than 80% of its population depends on subsistence agriculture. The aim of this study is to understand the impacts of warming on indigenous crop production, which can help to devise better strategies for crop adaptation and food security in this area.Methods A field warming experiment using a facility of free air temperature increase was conducted to simulate the predicted warming level in Caigongtang town, Lhasa City, China. The experiment consisting of two treatments (warmed and non-warmed) was performed using a completely random design with three replicates. An infrared heater (180 cm in length and 20 cm in width) of 1 500 W was suspended 1.5 m above the ground in each warmed plot. In each non-warmed plot, a ‘dummy’ heater of same dimensions was also suspended to mimic the shading effects. The warming treatment was performed from the sown date to the harvest date. We measured dry matter and nitrogen accumulation, partition and translocation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) using ‘Shandong 6’ under warming and control treatments.Important findings Results showed that, with 1.1 °C increase in daily mean air temperature during winter wheat growing season, the dry matter accumulation rate at population level from sowing to anthesis stage, grain dry matter partition ratio and contribution of dry matter translocation amount to grain after anthesis were 27.5%, 5.6% and 68.6% higher, respectively, in the warmed plots than those in the non-warmed plots. Meanwhile, warming increased nitrogen accumulation rate at population level of winter wheat. Nitrogen distribution proportions in grain and nitrogen translocation efficiency from vegetative organs to grain after anthesis in the warmed treatment were 6.0% and 5.5% higher than those in the non-warmed treatment, respectively. Compared with non-warmed treatment, warming decreased harvest index by 3.1%, though the difference was not statistically significant. Grain yield, nitrogen uptake efficiency, nitrogen partial factor productivity and nitrogen harvest index were 8.1%, 20.8%, 8.1% and 6.0% higher, respectively, in the warmed plots than those in the non-warmed plots. In conclusion, an increase in daily mean air temperature of about 1.1 °C can enhance plant growth during the pre-anthesis phase by mitigating the low temperature limitation, and accelerate dry matter and nitrogen partition and translocation to the grain after anthesis in winter wheat. These results suggest that warming may benefit winter wheat production through increasing nitrogen use efficiency in high altitude areas.

Key words: climate change, free air temperature increase, winter wheat, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency

Fig. 1

Free air of temperature increased (FATI) facility with infrared radiation in winter wheat field."

Fig. 2

Diurnal variations of temperatures on winter wheat canopy (A) and in soil layer of 5 cm (B) at filling stage."

Table 1

Responses of dry matter partition among different winter wheat organs at maturity to all-day warming (mean ± SE)"

处理
Treatment
籽粒 Grain 穗轴+颖壳 Spike axis + glume 叶片 Leaf 茎秆+叶鞘 Stem + sheath
分配量
Distribution amount (g·stem-1)
分配比例
Distribution
ratio (%)
分配量
Distribution amount (g·stem-1)
分配比例
Distribution
ratio (%)
分配量
Distribution amount (g·stem-1)
分配比例
Distribution
ratio (%)
分配量
Distribution amount (g·stem-1)
分配比例
Distribution
ratio (%)
不增温
Non-warmed
2.59 ± 0.04a 42.88 ± 0.45b 0.64 ± 0.02a 10.53 ± 0.40a 0.27 ± 0.01a 4.49 ± 0.08a 2.54 ± 0.05a 42.09 ± 0.27a
增温 Warmed 2.33 ± 0.05a 45.28 ± 0.08a 0.56 ± 0.02a 10.98 ± 0.36a 0.21 ± 0.01a 4.09 ± 0.30a 2.04 ± 0.04b 39.65 ± 0.10b

Table 2

Responses of plant nitrogen partition among winter wheat organs at maturity to all-day warming (mean ± SE)"

处理
Treatment
籽粒 Grain 穗轴+颖壳 Spike axis + glume 叶片 Leaf 茎秆+叶鞘 Stem + sheath
分配量
Distribution amount (g·stem-1)
分配比例
Distribution ratio (%)
分配量
Distribution amount (g·stem-1)
分配比例
Distribution ratio (%)
分配量
Distribution amount (g·stem-1)
分配比例
Distribution ratio (%)
分配量
Distribution amount (g·stem-1)
分配比例
Distribution
ratio (%)
不增温
Non-warmed
56.34 ± 0.76a 73.26 ± 0.63b 4.62 ± 0.25a 6.01 ± 0.35a 2.88 ± 0.11a 3.75 ± 0.12a 13.05 ± 0.26a 16.98 ± 0.40a
增温 Warmed 55.18 ± 0.55a 77.68 ± 0.27a 4.31 ± 0.18a 6.07 ± 0.29a 1.88 ± 0.14a 2.65 ± 0.19a 9.66 ± 0.13b 13.60 ± 0.20b

Table 3

Responses of dry matter translocation amount from vegetative organs to grain and dry matter accumulation amount after anthesis to all-day warming (mean ± SE)"

处理
Treatment
不增温
Non-warmed
增温
Warmed
营养器官花前贮藏同化物转运量
DMTA (kg·hm-2)
1 164.95 ± 48.69b 2 126.69 ± 129.66a
开花前贮藏同化物转运率
DMTR (%)
8.51 ± 0.52b 12.96 ± 0.91a
开花前贮藏同化物转运量对籽粒
贡献率 CDMTAAG (%)
13.29 ± 0.93b 22.40 ± 1.67a
开花后同化物积累输入籽粒量
DMAAA (kg·hm-2)
7 635.10 ± 293.44a 7 390.02 ± 309.59a
开花后同化量对籽粒贡献率
CDMAAAG (%)
86.71 ± 0.93a 77.60 ± 1.67b

Table 4

Responses of plant nitrogen translocation amount from vegetative organs to grain and plant nitrogen accumulation amount after anthesis to all-day warming (mean ± SE)"

处理
Treatment
不增温
Non-warmed
增温
Warmed
营养器官氮转运量
NTA (kg·hm-2)
149.92 ± 3.37b 180.79 ± 2.24a
营养器官氮转运率 TE (%) 67.34 ± 0.77b 71.07 ± 0.31a
开花前转运量对籽粒贡献率 CP (%) 75.24 ± 0.69a 70.61 ± 0.26b
开花后氮积累量 NAA (kg·hm-2) 49.37 ± 2.08b 75.24 ± 0.94a
开花后积累量对籽粒贡献率
CPNAA (%)
24.76 ± 0.69b 29.39 ± 0.26a

Table 5

Responses of grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat to all-day warming (mean ± SE)"

处理
Treatment
籽粒产量
Grain yield (kg·hm-2)
收获指数
Harvest index (%)
氮吸收效率
NUE (kg·kg-1)
氮肥偏生产力
NPFP (kg·kg-1)
氮收获指数
NHI (%)
不增温 Non-warmed 8 800.04 ± 246.65b 41.22 ± 0.54a 1.30 ± 0.02b 41.91 ± 1.17b 73.26 ± 0.63b
增温 Warmed 9 516.71 ± 220.48a 39.94 ± 0.67a 1.57 ± 0.01a 45.32 ± 1.05a 77.68 ± 0.27a

Fig. 3

Responses of dry matter accumulation rate (A and B) and nitrogen accumulation rate (C and D) during different developmental stage to all-day warming in winter wheat (mean ± SE). DMA, dry matter accumulation; NA, nitrogen accumulation. Different lowercase letters in the figure are significant at 5% level."

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