Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (4): 453-465.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2017.0214

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Temporal changes of vegetation water use efficiency and its influencing factors in Northern China

Chao-Yang FENG,He-Song WANG*(),Jian-xin SUN   

  1. College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Online:2018-06-01 Published:2018-04-20

Abstract:

Aims Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important variable for evaluating the growth adaptation of vegetation; it links carbon and water cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. Charactering the spatial and temporal variations in WUE and the driving factors not only can help understand the processes and regulations of ecosystem carbon and water cycles, but also provides scientific basis for formulating sustainable regional development policies and guiding water resources management. This study was conducted to determine the patterns of temporal changes for different vegetation types in northern China.

Methods Flux and meteorological data of nine field observation sites in northern China were used to analyze the changes of WUE under different temporal scales, including half-hourly, daily, 8-day intervals, and monthly. The effects of temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on WUE under different time scales were also examined.

Important findings (1) Diurnal change of WUE displayed an asymmetric “U” shape, with greater values at the sunrise than at the sunset. The seasonality of WUE in the Gobi and desert areas displayed a pattern of “U” shape, while it occurred as a single peak in other regions. The seasonal changes of WUE can be further divided into the types of gross primary production (GPP)-driven and the evapotranspiration (ET)-driven; the significance of either driven type increases with time. (2) Ta, RH, VPD and PAR were the main factors influencing the changes of WUE on a shorter temporal scale (half-hourly and daily). With increasing temporal scale, Ta and RH continue to remain the main factors affecting the changes of WUE, and their correlations with WUE were influenced by the prevailing role of GPP or ET. Moreover, the correlation coefficients became more significant with increasing temporal scales. (3) WUE increased with increases in leaf area index (LAI) until a certain value, beyond which the sensitivity of WUE to LAI decreased at the Changbai Mountain, Haibei and Zhangye stations. The relationship between precipitation and WUE was not significant in all the study areas. (4) Among the vegetation types, WUE ranked in order from high to low as forest, cropland, grassland, wetland and desert.

Key words: water use efficiency, flux measurement, gross primary production, evapotranspiration, meteorological factor

Fig. 1

Geographical location of the flux sites."

Table 1

Information on geography and vegetation of the study sites"

站点
Site
纬度
Latitude
(° N)
经度
Longitude
(°E )
数据时期
Data
period
年降水量
Mean annual
precipitation
(mm)
年平均气温
Mean
annual
Temperature
(℃)
海拔
Altitude
(m)
仪器高度
Height of
Instrument
(m)
植被类型
Vegetation type
长白山 Changbaishan 42.40 128.09 2003-2005 695 3.6 738 40.0 针阔混交林
Evergreen broad-leaved forest
密云 Miyun 40.63 117.32 2008-2009 615 10.9 350 26.6 玉米、果树 Maize, fruit tree
内蒙古 Nei Mongol 43.54 116.67 2004-2005 350 -0.4 1 252 4.0 温带草原 Temperate steppe
大兴 Daxing 39.62 116.43 2009-2010 590 11.6 20 3.0 玉米/小麦 Maize/wheat
海北 Haibei 37.67 101.33 2003-2005 560 -1.6 3 358 2.2 灌丛 Shrubland
大满 Daman 38.86 100.37 2013-2014 122 7.3 1 556 4.5 玉米 Maize
花寨子 Huazhaizi 38.77 100.32 2013-2014 130 7.3 1 731 2.9 荒漠 Desert
张掖 Zhangye 38.98 100.30 2013-2014 130 6.0 1 460 5.2 湿地 Wetland
巴吉滩 Bajitan 38.92 100.30 2013-2014 130 7.3 1 562 4.6 荒漠 Desert

Fig. 2

Diurnal changes of water use efficiency (WUE) for the study sites. The dash line indicates the time of WUE reached the minimum."

Fig. 3

Seasonal changes of water use efficiency (WUE) for the study sites. Data of three years from Haibei and Changbaishan, and two years form others."

Fig. 4

Pearson’s correlations of different factors with water use efficiency (WUE). GPP (g C·m-2), gross primary production; ET (kg H2O·m-2), evapotranspiration; PAR (W·m-2), photosynthetically active radiation; RH (%), relative humidity; Ta (°C), temperature; VPD (kPa), vapor pressure deficit."

Table 2

Standardized regression coefficients of meteorological factors and coefficient of determination (R2) in stepwise regression equations in different time scales (p < 0.05)"

台站名 Site 0.5 h R2 1 d R2 8 d R2 逐月 Monthly R2
长白山
Changbaishan
Ta (0.97), RH (-0.54),
VPD (-0.91), PAR (-0.17)
0.49 Ta (0.83), VPD (-0.27) 0.68 Ta (0.82) 0.67
内蒙古
Nei Mongol
Ta (0.29), RH (0.14),
PAR (-0.19)
0.14 RH (0.45) 0.20 (无显著因子)
(No significant factor)
海北
Haibei
Ta (0.90), VPD (-0.42),
PAR (-0.27)
0.71 Ta (1.05), VPD (-0.36),
PAR (-0.12)
0.93 Ta (0.89),
PAR (-0.33)
0.94
大兴
Daxing
Ta (0.51), VPD (-0.57), PAR (-0.34) 0.36 Ta (0.80), RH (-0.27),
VPD (-0.80), PAR (-0.37)
0.46 RH (0.61) 0.40 PAR (-0.85) 0.73
密云
Miyun
Ta (0.18), RH (0.26),
VPD (-0.13),
PAR (-0.18)
0.20 Ta (0.71), VPD (-0.57),
PAR (-0.33)
0.49 RH (0.51), Ta (0.57) 0.69 RH (0.80) 0.65
张掖
Zhangye
Ta (0.30), RH (0.50),
PAR (-0.39)
0.45 Ta (0.32), RH (0.70),
PAR (-0.14)
0.61 Ta (0.36), RH (0.58),
PAR (-0.44)
0.69 (无显著因子)
(No significant factor)
大满
Daman
Ta (0.68), RH (0.37),
VPD (-0.52),
PAR (-0.21)
0.57 Ta (0.54), RH (0.53),
PAR (-0.31)
0.63 Ta (0.94), VPD (-0.46) 0.70 Ta (0.84) 0.71
巴吉滩
Bajitan
Ta (-0.36), RH (-0.48),
PAR (-0.24)
0.20 Ta (-0.33), RH (-0.58),
PAR (-0.12)
0.30 RH (-0.77),
VPD (-0.46)
0.70 RH (-0.87) 0.70
花寨子
Huazhaizi
RH (-0.27),
PAR (-0.27)
0.12 RH (-0.65), PAR (-0.50) 0.31 RH (-0.66) 0.40 (无显著因子)
(No significant factor)

Fig. 5

Relationships between leaf area index (LAI) and water use efficiency (WUE) for different sites (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 6

Relationship between annual average leaf area index (LAI) and water use efficiency (WUE) in growing season (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 7

Relationships between precipitation (P) and water use efficiency (WUE) at 8-days scale."

Fig. 8

Relationship between annual precipitation (AP) and water use efficiency (WUE) in growing season."

Fig. 9

The average daily gross primary production (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE) for the study sites. The sites were arranged in the order of increasing WUE."

Fig. 10

Relationships between water use efficiency (WUE) and gross primary production (GPP) for the study sites (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 11

Relationships between water use efficiency (WUE) and evapotranspiration (ET) for the study sites (p < 0.05)."

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