Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (6): 543-556.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0045

• Research Articles • Previous Articles    

Diversity and potassium-solubilizing activity of rhizosphere potassium-solubilizing bacteria of invasive Solidago canadensis

YAN Ya-Nan1,2,YE Xiao-Qi1,*(),WU Ming1,YAN Ming2,ZHANG Xin-Li1   

  1. 1 Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Wetland Ecosystem Research Station of Hangzhou Bay, Fuyang, Zhejiang 311400, China
    2 School of Life Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, Shanxi 041000, China
  • Received:2019-02-28 Revised:2019-05-29 Online:2019-09-30 Published:2019-06-20
  • Contact: YE Xiao-Qi
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31770578)


Aims Solidago canadensis, an invasive herbaceous species, has a strong capacity of potassium enrichment, that may relate to its influence on soil microbial community. Rhizosphere potassium-soluble bacteria can convert mineral potassium into soluble forms being able to be used by plants. It is not known how invasion of S. canadensis may affect diversity and potassium-solubilizing activity of the potassium-solubilizing bacteria. Methods We compared S. canadensis and its coexisting native plant Imperata cylindrica in the reclaimed Hangzhou Bay wetland, Zhejiang Province. We compared the potassium contents of soil and the plant tissues of S. canadensis and Imperata cylindrica which coexists with the invasive species, the effect of potassium supply level on biomass accumulation of plants, and the quantity, diversity and potassium-soluble activity of the rhizosphere potassium-solubilizing bacteria. Important findings The potassium contents in stem and leaf of S. canadensis were significantly higher (1.59 and 7.33 times respectively) than that of I. cylindrica, the contents of available potassium in the 0-10 cm soil layer where the two species grew were significantly different, but not in the 10-20 cm soil layer. Potassium application experiments showed significant biomass increase in both S. canadensis and I. cylindrica, and tissue potassium concentrations as well. Potassium-dissolving medium culture results showed that the number of potassium-‌solubilizing bacteria of S. canadensis rhizosphere was 2.51 times higher than that of I. cylindrica. The strains with potassium-dissolving rings were identified, and the amount of released potassium was determined. Among the 15 strains of potassium-solubilizing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere soil of S. canadensis, nine efficiently dissolved potassium, and the content of K + in the treatment solution was 85.11%-192.54% higher than that in the control. Strain H2-20 had the strongest ability with the dissolved K + of 10.657 mg·L -1. The potassium- solubilizing effect of rhizosphere potassium-solubilizing bacteria of S. canadensis was significantly higher than that of I. cylindrica. According to 16S rDNA identification, the 15 strains of bacteria associated with S. canadensis were of 11 genera, and 6 of them had been reported to have the potassium-solubilizing ability. Our results suggest that potassium-solubilizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of S. canadensis is abundant, and may play an important role in potassium enrichment.

Key words: invasive plant, rhizosphere potassium-solubilizing bacteria, potassium capacity, intrusion mechanism, phylogenetic tree

Table 1

Formula of culture medium for potassium-solubilizing bacteria used in this experiment"

Content (g·L-1)
Content (g·L-1)
蔗糖 Sucrose 5.0 Na2HPO4 2.0
MgSO4 0.5 FeCl3 0.005
CaCO3 0.1 土壤矿物
Soil mineral
琼脂 Agar 18.0 蒸馏水 Distilled water 1 000

Fig. 1

Contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in leaves and stems of Solidago canadensis and Imperata cylindrica (mean ± SE). **, p < 0.01; ns, no significant difference."

Fig. 2

Total N, total P and total K contents in different soil layers where Solidago canadensis and Imperata cylindrica grew (mean ± SE). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among the treatments (p < 0.05); ns, no significant difference (p > 0.05)."

Fig. 3

A biomass comparison of Solidago canadensis and Imperata cylindrica under different potassium treatments (mean ± SE). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among the treatments of different plants (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 4

A comparison of potassium-solubilizing bacteria numbers in rhizosphere of Solidago canadensis and Imperata cylindrica (mean ± SE). *, p < 0.05."

Table 2

Colony characteristics and potassium-solubilizing ability of 15 strains of rhizosphere potassium-solubilizing bacteria from Solidago canadensis "

菌株编号 Strain No. 菌落形态特征
Colony morphology characteristics
ring (R)(cm)
Radius of
the colony
H5-1 菌斑小且不规则, 白色 Plaque small and irregular, white 0.29 0.26 1.14
H1-3 菌斑大, 凸起低, 色素淡且均匀 Plaque large, low protuberance, light and uniform pigmentation 1.08 0.93 1.16
H1-4 不规则凸起, 透明, 较少色素 Irregular protuberance, transparency, less pigmentation 0.56 0.48 1.17
H6-5 小液滴状, 边缘规则, 色素呈放射状 Small droplets with regular edges and radial pigments 0.47 0.45 1.04
H3-8 菌斑小且不规则, 色素深呈放射状 plaque small and irregular, dark and radial pigments 0.42 0.25 1.68
H5-10 不规则凸起, 菌斑乳白色, 边缘黄色沉着 Irregular protuberance, milky white plaque, yellow edge 0.66 0.53 1.26
H1-12 不规则液滴状, 边缘模糊, 中央色素沉着 Irregular droplet shape, blurred edge, central pigmentation 0.78 0.66 1.18
H2-14 液滴状, 凸起高, 色素呈圆形 Droplet-shaped, tall protuberance, rounded pigments 0.84 0.54 1.56
H1-15 菌斑小, 边缘不规则, 色素呈伞状 Plaque small, irregular margin, umbrella-shaped pigments 0.56 0.38 1.46
H2-16 不规则液滴状, 浑浊, 中央色素沉着 Irregular droplet, turbid, central pigmentation 0.62 0.40 1.55
H2-17 规则小液滴凸起, 色素少 Regular small droplets protruding, less pigmentation 0.52 0.32 1.63
H5-18 液滴状, 透明, 中央色素沉着 Droplet-like, transparent, central pigmentation 0.72 0.52 1.38
H1-19 边缘锯齿形, 液滴状, 色素呈同心圆状 Edge serrated, droplet-shaped, concentric circle of pigments 1.10 0.74 1.49
H2-20 菌斑较大, 规则液滴状, 色素均匀 Plaque large, regular droplet shape, uniform pigmentation 1.00 0.64 1.56
H1-21 规则液滴状, 凸起高, 透明, 色素少 Regular droplet shape, high protrusion, transparent, less pigmentation 0.94 0.56 1.68

Table 3

Colony characteristics and potassium-solubilizing ability of 5 strains of rhizosphere potassium-solubilizing bacteria from Imperata cylindrica"

Strain No.
Colony morphology characteristics
ring (R)(cm)
Radius of
the colony
B1-6 凸起低, 浑浊, 中央色素呈同心圆状 Low protrusion, turbid, concentric circle of central pigments 0.74 0.55 1.34
B6-7 不规则凸起, 浑浊 Irregular bulge, turbidity 0.65 0.55 1.18
B2-9 菌斑小且不规则, 白色, 无凸起 Plaque small and irregular, white, without protuberance 0.92 0.70 1.31
B4-11 规则液滴状, 凸起较高, 色素淡且均匀 Regular droplet shape, higher protuberance, light and uniform
0.50 0.41 1.22
B6-13 液滴状, 凸起高, 色素均匀沉着 Droplet-like, protruding, uniformly pigmented 0.56 0.46 1.21

Table 4

Phylogenetic analysis of rhizosphere potassium-solubilizing bacteria from Solidago canadensis."

Strain No.
Accession number
Most similar strain (registration number)
sequence similarity
H5-1 MH490984 Pseudoflavitalea soli KIS20-3 (NR_148655) 96%
H2-3 MH490985 Mitsuaria sp. SS48 (HQ891978) 99%
H1-4 MH490986 Rhizobium sp. KMM 9576 (LC126306) 100%
H6-5 MH490987 Microbacterium sp. 3B2 (MG763154) 99%
H3-8 MH490990 Streptomyces variabilis SD22 (MH244336) 98%
H5-10 MH490992 Azotobacter chroococcum YCYS (JQ692178) 99%
H1-12 MH490994 Stenotrophomonas panacihumi 5-III (KP969077) 99%
H2-14 MH490996 Pseudomonas sp. EA_S_32 (KJ642336) 98%
H1-15 MH490997 Cupriavidus sp. FZ96 (KF803333) 99%
H2-16 MH490998 Ensifer adhaerens WJB133 (KU877667) 100%
H2-17 MH490999 Rhizobium taeanense PSB 2-6 (DQ114473) 99%
H5-18 MH491000 Pseudoflavitalea soli KIS20-3 (NR_148655) 96%
H1-19 MH491001 Filimonas endophytica SR 2-06 (KJ572396) 99%
H2-20 MH491002 Lysobacter niastensis GH41-7 (NR_043868) 99%
H1-21 MH491003 Siphonobacter aquaeclarae HPG59 (JQ291601) 99%

Table 5

Phylogenetic analysis of rhizosphere potassium-solubilizing bacteria from Imperata cylindrica"

Strain No.
Accession number
Most similar strain (registration number)
sequence similarity
B1-6 MH490988 Microbacterium imperiale (JN585685) 99%
B6-7 MH490989 Enterobacter sp. PRd5 (KY203970) 99%
B2-9 MH490991 Alloactinosynnema album 03-9939 (NR_116323) 99%
B4-11 MH490993 Chryseolinea sp. SDU1-6 (MG662377) 95%
B6-13 MH490995 Pseudoflavitalea soli KIS20-3 (NR_148655) 96%

Fig. 5

Phylogenetic tree of 15 strains rhizosphere potassium-solubilizing bacteria of Solidago canadensis. The numbers in the figure refer the bootstrap values for testing the reliability of branch of evolutionary tree, the greater the value, the higher the reliability."

Fig. 6

Phylogenetic tree of 5 strains rhizospheric potassium-solubilizing bacteria from Imperata cylindrica. The numbers in the figure refer the bootstrap values for testing the reliability of branch of evolutionary tree, the greater the value, the higher the reliability."

Fig. 7

A comparison of means and single potassium solubilization amounts of potassium-solubilizing bacteria in rhizosphere of Solidago canadensis and Imperata cylindrica (mean ± SE). AVG, mean potassium dissolution amount of different rhizosphere potassium-solubilizing bacteria."

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