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    Species distribution pattern and formation mechanism of mangrove plants around the South China Sea
    YANG Xin, REN Ming-Xun
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2023, 47 (8): 1105-1115.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2022.0366
    Accepted: 18 October 2022

    Abstract715)   HTML125)    PDF (2352KB)(466)       Save

    Aims The region around the South China Sea is a relatively independent semi closed geographical unit, which can be divided into eight areas, including the coast of South China, Hainan Island, Taiwan Island, Indo-China Peninsula, Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan Island, Palawan Island, and Luzon Island. The region around the South China Sea is one of the regions with the most concentrated distribution of mangrove plants in the world. This study aims to explore the geographical distribution pattern and the underlying mechanisms of mangrove species in the eight regions around the South China Sea.

    Methods Species richness and distribution of mangrove in the region around the South China Sea and other regions worldwide were obtained through extensive literature survey and mapped with ArcGIS. Species distribution map with 1° × 1° grid of four typical mangrove taxa, i.e. Rhizophoraceae, Malvaceae, Sonneratia, Avicennia, were drawn by DIVA-GIS 7.5.0. The migration history and route and its main influencing factors were explored through literature survey in ISI Web of Science.

    Important findings (1) There are 39 species of true mangroves and 14 species of semi-mangroves distributed in this region, mostly distributed in Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan Island, Hainan Island, Indo-China Peninsula, Luzon Island. (2) All mangrove species are widespread in the region, which may be caused by the fact that South China Sea has completely different ocean current and monsoon directions in summer and winter, promoting the long-distance dispersals of mangrove plants. (3) There is a certain internal circulation in the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea, and resulting in the appearance of relatively isolated genetic lineages on both sides of the line connecting Cam Ranh Bay and the northern tip of Palawan Island, especially for the true mangroves such as Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemose and Aegiceras corniculatum. (4) The sea level decreased by about 120 m during the Pleistocene, which profoundly affected the distribution pattern and migration route of mangroves in the region. In the future, phylogeographical studies using updated molecular technology, especially genomic data, is suggested to explore the dispersal history of mangrove plants and their future evolutionary trend under global climate change.

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    Spatial-temporal dynamics of coastal aquaculture ponds and its impacts on mangrove ecosystems
    JIANG Yu-Feng, LI Jing, XIN Rui-Rui, LI Yi
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2022, 46 (10): 1268-1279.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2022.0234
    Accepted: 28 September 2022

    Abstract416)   HTML20)    PDF (11050KB)(277)       Save

    Aims With increasing anthropogenic activities in coastal areas, human disturbances have been identified as major causes of the decline of coastal mangroves and undemine the sustainable development. Monitoring the spatial-temporal dynamics of typical human activities in mangrove ecosystems and adjacent areas is critical in conservation and restoration of local mangrove ecosystems.

    Methods We proposed an object-oriented machine learning method based on seasonal water fluctuations, using Landsat satellite imagery on Google Earth Engine platform. Inundation frequency was incorporated as a classification feature to obtain the spatial pattern of aquaculture ponds, which is concerned as the key driver of degradation and losses of mangroves. We revealed the dynamics of aquaculture ponds at a 30 m-resolution between 1990 and 2020 in China’s coastal regions with mangrove community detected, including Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Taiwan, Guangxi, and Hainan.

    Important findings The total area of coastal aquaculture ponds in 1990 was about 2 963 km2, which increased to 5 200 km2 in 2000 and 5 377 km2 in 2010, and then decreased to 4 805 km2 in 2020. The maximum appeared between 2010 and 2020, but there was a significant regional variation in the changing pattern and peaking time of coastal aquaculture ponds. Coastal aquaculture ponds were mainly concentrated in the region of 21°-24° N (Guangdong and Guangxi). The spatial pattern of mangroves was shown as a staggered arrangement to that of aquaculture ponds. Our results also indicate a symbiotic relationship between aquaculture ponds and mangroves at latitude 21°-22° N, where a large number of mangroves grow along the edges of aquaculture ponds. This special distribution of mangroves and aquaculture ponds leads to a high level of interconnections between these two ecosystems, which can be recognized as the typical areas in exploring the impacts of human activities on mangrove ecosystems. The conversion of mangroves to aquaculture ponds was the primary cause of mangrove loss, which led to the extreme fragmentation and aggregation of mangrove patches in different areas. Our research on the spatial-temporal pattern of coastal aquaculture ponds provides an accurate dataset to assess the impacts of increasing human activities on mangrove ecosystems, and may contribute to the identification of priority restoration area.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
      
    Effects of provenance on leaf structure and function of two mangrove species: the genetic adaptation to temperature
    ZHANG Xiao-Yan, WEE Kim Shan Alison, KAJITA Tadashi, CAO Kun-Fang
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2021, 45 (11): 1241-1250.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2021.0221
    Accepted: 29 September 2021

    Abstract776)   HTML71)    PDF (2049KB)(501)       Save

    Aims Plant leaves have the ability to adjust phenotypic characteristics according to different environmental conditions. The adaptability of leaf traits to the environment directly affects the survival, distribution and migration of plants under climate change. With global warming, mangrove forests have been expanding to higher latitudes. However, there is still a lack of understanding about the genetic adaptation of leaf traits of different mangrove species to temperature variation of native habitats.
    Methods The leaf anatomical structure and physiological function parameters of the seedlings from 6 provenances of Bruguiera gymnorhiza and 5 provenances of Kandelia obovata were measured, which were grown in a common garden. The relationships between the leaf anatomical traits and physiological function of mangrove seedlings were analyzed, and the genetic adaptation of two mangrove species to the temperature of provenance was analyzed.
    Important findings The leaf thickness, thickness of palisade tissue, cuticle and epidermis of B. gymnorhiza seedlings were significantly negatively correlated with the mean annual temperature of their native habitats. Compared with the seedlings of B. gymnorhiza, the K. obovata seedlings had thicker leaf epidermis and cuticle, and the anatomical traits of K. obovata were not correlated with the annual average temperature of the provenances. Pooling the data of the seedlings of different provenances of the two species together, the palisade tissue and to a lesser extend spongy tissue were positively correlated with photosynthetic rate, suggesting an important role of palisade tissue for photosynthesis in mangroves. There was also a significant positive correlation between vein density and stomatal density, maximum stomatal conductance, revealing genetic adaptation for the balance between leaf transpirational demand and water supply. In conclusion, B. gymnorhiza showed the significant genetic adaptation to the temperature of the provenance, while K. obovata did not. The leaf anatomical structure of K. obovata adapts to the temperature of provenance through the persistent inheritance of stress resistance of leaf structure. The differences of leaf structure lead to the corresponding changes of physiological functions such as photosynthesis and maximum stomatal conductance of mangroves, which is conducive to the survival and reproduction of mangroves under the climate change.

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
      
    Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil organic carbon composition of mangrove wetland in Zhangjiang River Estuary
    SUN Hui-Min, JIANG Jiang, CUI Li-Na, ZHANG Shui-Feng, ZHANG Jin-Chi
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2018, 42 (7): 774-784.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0104
    Accepted: 26 September 2018

    Abstract1352)   HTML94)    PDF (4123KB)(1535)       English Version    Save

    Aims The composition of soil organic carbon has been changed significantly in mangrove ecosystems due to the invasion of Spartina alterniflora in recent years. However, few studies were reported on functional groups of soil organic carbon in the two communities. The object of this study was to understand the differences in soil carbon pool and organic carbon functional group characteristics in mangrove community and S. alterniflora community of Zhangjiang Mangrove Nature Reserve in Fujian Province.

    Methods We used the method of “space for time” to study the changes of soil carbon composition following the invasion of S. alterniflora. Three transects were selected from landward to seaward in the wetland of Zhangjiang Mangrove Nature Reserve in Fujian Province, with three sampling sites in each transect: mangrove community (MC), transitional community (TC), and S. alterniflora community (SC). We sampled three plots in each site for replicates. Soil samples from five soil layers at 0-100 cm were collected to analyze the characteristics of total organic carbon (TOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolve organic carbon (DOC). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyze the functional group characteristics for surface (0-15 cm) and deep layers (75-100 cm).

    Important findings We found that: (1) soil organic carbon decreased from MC to SC, with TOC and POC following the pattern of MC > TC > SC. However, the DOC did not show a clear trend. (2) The functional groups of soil organic carbon in all vegetation types were mainly alkyl carbon and alkoxy carbon, followed by aromatic carbon and carbonyl carbon. In the surface soil 0-15 cm, the alkyl carbon and alkoxy carbon showed an increasing trend from MC to SC. The aromatic carbon and phenolic carbon decreased from MC to SC. In the deep layer of 75-100 cm soil, however, soil organic carbon composition showed no significant difference among the three communities. (3) In the surface 0-15 cm soil, alkyl carbon/alkoxy carbon showed the following pattern: SC > MC > TC; SC has the least aromaticity; hydrophobic carbon/hydrophilic carbon showed no significant difference; aliphatic carbon/aromatic carbon showed larger values in SC than in MC and TC. At the depth of 75-100 cm, there were no significant differences for all the ratios. In summary, the carbon storage of MC was higher than that of SC. The decomposition rate of soil organic carbon of SC in surface soil layer was higher than that of MC, indicating more complex organic carbon in MC. The deep layer carbon pool was more stable and less affected by vegetation type. The results indicated that S. alterniflora would reduce soil carbon storage after invading mangroves, as well as changing the composition of soil organic carbon functional groups. The molecular structure of soil organic carbon in SC was simpler than MC, and the degree of decomposition was greater in SC than MC.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
      
    Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on enrichment of sedimental heavy metals in a mangrove wetland and the underlying mechanisms
    Quan CHEN, Ke-Ming MA
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2017, 41 (4): 409-417.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe. 2016.0338
    Abstract1169)   HTML524)    PDF (4186KB)(1077)       English Version    Save

    Aims The cordgrass Spartina alterniflora is one of the highly successful invasive plants in coastlines worldwide. Although the S. alterniflora invasion is threatening mangroves and the increasing heavy metal pollution of oceans and coasts are of growing concerns, especially in China, the effects of S. alterniflora invasion on the enrichment of sedimental heavy metals in mangrove wetlands are not known. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of S. alterniflora invasion on enrichment of sedimental heavy metals in the mangrove wetland and the underlying mechanisms.
    Methods We investigated differences in the contents of sedimental heavy metals, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mn, for two pairs of comparisons (unvegetated shoal vs S. alterniflora monoculture and Avicennia marina monoculture vs A. marina + S. alterniflora mixture), and their relationships with environmental factors in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Natural Reserve, Guangdong, China.
    Important findings Spartina alterniflora invasions in mangrove wetlands increased the contents of sedimental heavy metals, with the effects being significant on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mn. The intermediate level of pollution was only detected in the sedimental Cd. The presence of S. alterniflora resulted in enrichment in the sedimental heavy metals in the mangrove wetland in Zhanjiang, but not to the degree of concerns for contaminations. The contents of sedimental organic matter, total C, total N, total S and total K were strongly related to the contents of sedimental heavy metals in the invaded mangrove wetland. Ultimately, the dense above-and below-ground architectures of the invasive S. alterniflora likely play a predominant role in causing enrichment of sedimental heavy metals.

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
      
    Progress in the studies of vivipary in mangrove plants
    Xiao-Xuan ZHOU, Ling-Ling CAI, Mei-Ping FU, Li-Wei HONG, Ying-Jia SHEN, Qingshun Quinn LI
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2016, 40 (12): 1328-1343.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0087
    Abstract2511)   HTML176)    PDF (654KB)(2809)       Save

    Vivipary in plants refers to a phenomenon that sexually reproduced offsprings germinate while still attached to the maternal bodies. This is mostly manifested in mangrove plants, which occur in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones and encounter harsh environmental conditions such as high salinity, high temperatures, waterlogging, hypoxia and tidal waves. Vivipary has long been recognized as one of the most important adaptive features under such a complex environment. Here we discuss four aspects of vivipary: morphological anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, molecular biology and ecological adaptation. We also discuss shortcomings in current studies and prospect of future directions. Differing from regular seed development, viviparous seeds in mangroves are evolved with many special structures, indicating a genetically based process. Hormones play an important role in regulating the process, whilst the dynamics of salt ion concentration during embryo and propagule development seems to be an adaptive feature. The ecological significance of vivipary is fully exhibited in the propagules that can effectively establish themselves on muddy tidal zones. Such a success heavily relies on sound functional features developed on the mother plants. However, the molecular mechanism and the regulation of viviparous seed development in mangroves remain elusive. Systematic studies of vivipary in mangroves not only help to understand the nature and evolutionary process of this distinct adaptive phenomenon, but also provide the foundation for mangrove forest restoration and protection in many parts of the world.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
      
    Research overview and trend on biological invasion in mangrove forests
    CHEN Quan,MA Ke-Ming
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2015, 39 (3): 283-299.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0028
    Abstract1736)   HTML432)    PDF (412KB)(3017)       Save

    To examine our current understanding on biological invasions in mangrove forests, relevant information from literature was reviewed and several key points were summarized based on the database of ISI Web of Science and the information analysis software HistCite. First, most of the studies have focused on the invasion of plant species in mangrove forests, and little attention are paid to other organisms. Secondly, there is an obvious bias on the locations of study sites, with most being situated in the southern and southeastern coasts of China (especially in the Pearl River Estuary and west of the Leizhou Peninsula) and the southeastern coast and Hawaiian Islands of the United States. Thirdly, that whether Sonneratia apetala can result in invasion is still a hot but controversial topic. Introduction of this species should be cautious. Forth, Spartina alterniflora and Mikania micrantha are the most notorious invaders around the world; both possess fast growth rate, high reproductive and competitive capacity, and strong allelopathic effects. They have invaded mangrove forests and caused severe ecological consequences, and apparently deteriorated the microhabitat and changed the benthic organisms’ community. Fifth, Rhizophora mangle has invaded Hawaiian Islands as an exotic mangrove species, modified the sedimentary environment, and enriched the benthic organisms, but the impacts are yet to be considered at the global scale. In general, studies on biological invasions in mangrove forests are still at the infant stage and we know little about the underlying mechanisms of the invasions. Specific strategies are lacking for controlling the invasion. The state of invasion and corresponding impacts should be continually focused in future studies. Exploration of the mechanisms and controlling strategies of invasion in mangroves should be launched as soon as possible. The assessment of the effects of biological invasion on ecological services of mangroves should also be emphasized. Finally, a sound management system for the control of biological invasions in mangrove forests is urgently needed.

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    Cited: CSCD(14)
      
    Antioxidant defense and photosynthesis for non-indigenous mangrove species Sonneratia apetala and Laguncularia racemosa under NaCl stress
    CHEN Jian,LI Ni-Ya,LIU Qiang,ZHONG Cai-Rong,HUANG Min,ZENG Jia
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2013, 37 (5): 443-453.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2013.00046
    Abstract1140)   HTML110)    PDF (6151KB)(1674)       Save

    Aims Sonneratia apetala, a native mangrove species in India, Bengal and Sri-Lanka, was introduced in 1985 to Dongzhaigang Mangrove Nature Reserve in Hainan Island, China from Sundarban, southwest of Bangladesh. Laguncularia racemosa, another mangrove species from Mexico was introduced to the same reserve in 1999. Our objective was to investigate the salinity tolerance mechanism of S. apetala and L. racemosa in order to elucidate adaptive strategies of the halophytes in stressful saline habitat.
    Methods We investigated the effects of increasing soil NaCl (100-400 mmol·L-1) on gas exchange, O2-· production rate, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the relevance to salt tolerance over four weeks in 1-year-old seedlings of S. apetala and L. racemosa.
    Important findings
    Seedlings of the two mangrove species acclimated to different salinity levels through changing physiological and morphological traits. However, there were significant differences between S. apetala and L. racemosa in photosynthesis and anti-oxidant defense under salt stress. Increasing NaCl stress significantly elevated net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased. As a result, water use efficiency (WUE) increased in leaves of S. apetala seedlings. But L. racemosa showed a rapid increase of Pn in the initiation of salt stress, and Pn remained lower than control levels at the end of the experiment. As a result, Ci and Gs increase with the decrease of Pn, Tr and WUE. The reduction occurred after exposure of L. racemosa seedlings to severe salinity, 400 mmol·L-1 NaCl (28 d). These results indicated that the inhibitory effects of severe salinity were more pronounced in L. racemosa under the same salinity. Moreover, the magnitude of variation of S. apetala maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) was significantly less than that of L. racemosa leaves. We speculated that photosynthetic capacity of S. apetala was higher than L. racemosa. O2-· production rate markedly increased after the two seedlings were subjected to 100 mmol·L-1 NaCl and 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl for 7 days and 14 days, respectively. However, O2-· production rate in S. apetala leaves markedly increased upon increasing salinity and reached the highest level after seedlings were subjected to 400 mmol·L-1 NaCl for 28 days, which was 5.3 fold of that in controls. In contrast to S. apetala, O2 -· production rate in L. racemosa leaves remained lower than control levels at the end of the experiment. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) was elevated corresponding to the increased O2-· production in the salt-stressed two mangrove plants; however, the magnitude of increase of L. racemosa antioxidant enzyme activities was significantly greater than that of S. apetala, during the period of salt stress. We suggest that L. racemosa plants were able to sense salt stress and up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes to reduce salt-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability, which contributed to maintenance of membrane integrity and salt tolerance in L. racemosa. Sonneratia apetala seedlings might adapt resistance to severe salinity through improving photosynthesis by higher WUE and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm).

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    Cited: CSCD(16)
      
    Damage to mangroves from extreme cold in early 2008 in southern China
    CHEN Lu-Zhen, WANG Wen-Qing, ZHANG Yi-Hui, HUANG Li, ZHAO Chun-Lei, YANG Sheng-Chang, YANG Zhi-Wei, CHEN Yue-Chao, XU Hua-Lin, ZHONG Cai-Rong, SU Bo, FANG Bai-Zhou, CHEN Nai-Ming, ZENG Chuan-Zhi, LIN Guang-Hui
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2010, 34 (2): 186-194.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.02.010
    Abstract2243)   HTML1)    PDF (634KB)(1482)       Save

    Aims Unusually low temperatures associated with heavy rain, snow and frost occurred in 19 provinces in southern China in January-February 2008. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of the cold weather event on mangroves and to compare differences in cold tolerance between exotic and native mangrove species.

    Methods In March 2008, we conducted an intensive survey of cold damage in ten mangrove nature reserves along the coastal areas of mainland China. Parameters such as scorch percentage, defoliation percentage and leaf Fv/Fm values (an indicator of leaf physiological health) were determined on selected seedlings and trees of the mangrove species at each site.

    Important findings With low latitudes in Hainan, Guangxi and Zhanjiang of Guangdong, low air temperature coupled with the ebb tide at night, which caused serious damage to several mangrove species. However, native mangrove species in Fujian, such as Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina and transplanted Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, which were adapted to low temperature events in winters, had higher cold resistance. Among all mangrove species surveyed, K. obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina were the most cold-resistant, followed by B. gymnorrhiza, B. sexangula and Rhizophora stylosa, which belong to the family Rhizophoraceae. Sonneratia caseolaris was the least cold-resistent mangrove species, having suffered serious damage or even complete loss in some locations. S. apetala introduced from Bangladesh showed much less damage than its counterpart S. caseolaris, indicating higher resistance to low temperature. Furthermore, mangrove seedlings were more sensitive than mature trees. The extreme cold event killed many mangrove seedlings in the nurseries and caused immature flowers and fruits to drop from trees, which would have an adverse effect on mangrove natural reproduction and reforestation projects. Thus, it is essential to consider cold resistance in future mangrove afforestration and restoration projects.

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    Cited: CSCD(34)
      
    COMPARISONS OF LEAF CHLORIDE CONTENT AND LEAF TRAITS BETWEEN TRUE MANGROVE PLANTS AND SEMI-MANGROVE PLANTS
    MU Mei-Rong, JIANG Qiao-Lan, WANG Wen-Qing
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2007, 31 (3): 497-504.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2007.0062
    Abstract3467)   HTML98)    PDF (368KB)(1576)       Save

    Aims Mangrove plants are usually categorized as true mangrove plants and semi-mangrove plants on the basis of their distribution in inter-tidal regions. However, the identification of some fringe mangrove species found mainly on the landward transitional zones is controversial. Specific leaf area (SLA, leaf area per unit dry mass) and mass- and area-based leaf nitrogen concentrations (Nmass and Narea) are important leaf traits for plants, but relevant comparative research on true and semi-mangrove plants is unavailable. Our objective was to determine differences between the two groups and to classify the controversial species according to their leaf traits. Ultimately, this will assist in the management, protection and utilization of mangrove forest.
    Methods Three individuals in similar growth sites were chosen for each species from Hainan Island. Fully expanded mature leaves were sampled from the upper canopy of all plants. Succulence (water content per unit leaf area), SLA, Nmass and Narea of mature leaves were studied for 33 species, representing all but three of the mangrove species in China.
    Important findings True mangrove plants accumulated more Cl and water per unit leaf area than semi-mangrove plants, except for Pemphis acidula, Hernandia sonora and Clerodendrum inerme. Cl and water content per unit leaf area of true mangrove plants were generally >2.5 mg·cm-2 and >2.4 g·dm-2, respectively. Cl concentrations were positively related to succulence for all mangrove species. True mangrove plants had low SLA (<100 cm 2·g-1) and high Narea; however, semi-mangrove plants had high SLA (mean of 160.4 cm 2·g-1). Pemphis acidula had much lower SLA than other semi-mangrove species. Our study suggested that there are significant differences between true mangrove plants and semi-mangrove plants in leaf Cl concentration, succulence, SLA, Nmass and Narea. Heritiera littoralis, Excoecaria agallocha, Acrostichum aureum and Acrostichum speciosum are better classified as semi-mangrove plants, while Acanthus ilicifolius and Acanthus ebrecteatus are classified as true mangrove plants, and Xylocarpus granatum needs further research.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
      
    COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF RHIZOPHORACEAE PLANTS GROWN IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
    HUANG Jian-Hui, LIN Guang-Hui, HAN Xing-Guo
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2005, 29 (4): 530-536.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2005.0071
    Abstract4100)   HTML7)    PDF (664KB)(1490)       Save

    We determined the δ13C values of leaf samples collected from plants belonging to 6 genera in the Rhizophoraceae family grown in four locations in China, including three coastal areas (Dongzhaigang of Hainan Province, Xiamen of Fujian Province, Beihai of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region), and one inland area (Xishuangbanna of Yunan Province) in May and September, 2002. The nine plant species included Carallia brachiata, C. diphopetala, Pellacalyx yunnanensis, Rhizophora apiculata, R. stylosa, Bruguiera sexangula, B. gymnorhiza, Kandelia candel, and Ceriops tagal. The results indicated that leaf δ13C values, corresponding to integrated wateruse efficiency (WUE) (ratio of CO2 assimilation rate to leaf transpiration), ranged from -32‰ to -26‰, but did not vary significantly between May and September in most of those plant species. However, there were significant differences in leafδ13C values among growing environments with lower foliar δ13C values for the plants grown in the inland than those in the coastal areas on two sampling dates, indicating a higher intercellular CO2 concentration and thus a lower water use efficiency for the plants grown in the inland. In addition, among those plants living in the coastal areas, the leaves of plants grown in the Beihai had the highest δ13C values indicating the lowest intercellular CO2 concentration and thus highest WUE, which may be caused by the high salt content in the seawater or high water stress in Beihai. Our results suggest that the foliar δ13C values of the plants in the Rhizophoraceae family could be highly affected by intermittent environmental factors, although their genetic characteristics may play a significant role in determining their foliar δ13C values.

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    Cited: CSCD(18)
      
    WOOD STRUCTURES OF SOME SONNERATIA SPECIES AND THEIR ADAPTATION TO INTERTIDAL HABITATS
    DENG Chuan-Yuan, LIN Peng, Guo Su-Zhi
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2004, 28 (3): 392-399.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2004.0056
    Abstract1523)      PDF (339KB)(1508)       Save
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    Element Distribution and its Relationship with Soil Fertility in Different Succession Stages of a Mangrove Community in Yingluo Bay, Guangxi
    HE Bin, WEN Yuan-Guang, LIANG Hong-Wen, LI Zhi-Xian, LIU Shi-Rong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2002, 26 (5): 518-524.  
    Abstract2452)      PDF (269KB)(1443)       Save
    The Yingluo Bay is located in Hepu county, Guangxi, China, and has an area of mangrove approximately 80 hm2 in size. These mangrove communities belong to the estuarine mangrove vegetation type. These communities show distributional zones in the different
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    Cited: CSCD(16)
      
    Fractal Characteristics of the Height Structure of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Population
    LIANG Shi-Chu, WANG Bo-Sun
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2002, 26 (4): 408-412.  
    Abstract2298)      PDF (238KB)(1500)       Save
    The characteristics of the height structure of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza population in National Shankou Mangrove Nature Reserve were studied by measuring the fractal dimension of height contour. The results showed that the height structure of B. gymnorrhiza p
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    Cited: CSCD(26)
      
    Effects of Seawater Salinity on Hypocotyl Growth in Two Mangrove Species
    MO Zhu-Cheng, FAN Hang-Qing, HE Bin-Yuan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2001, 25 (2): 235-239.  
    Abstract2192)      PDF (369KB)(1095)       Save
    The quality of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Rhizophora stylosa hypocotyl budding and rooting in water of different salinities (expressed relative to normal sea water) was studied in seeds from the Guangxi coast. Seawater salinity lower than 10‰ promoted the budding and rooting of B. gymnorrhiza hypocotyls. Relative to those grown in water with salinity levels higher than 20‰ and 30‰ these began rooting about 6 days earlier and mean rooting was 7.1-4.8 days earlier. Rooting rates were 20%-30%. The best seawater salinity condition for R. stylosa hypocotyl rooting was about 20‰ at which the rooting rate and mean rooting rate were 90% and 68% respectively. The rooting rate was only 40% in freshwater. A novel bimodal phenomenon in the continuous rooting rate of B. gymnorrhiza hypocotyles was also observed. Budding of R. stylosa hypocotyls appears to be limited when their base is exposed to light.
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    Cited: CSCD(12)
      
    Mating System of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Populations of Mangrove, China
    GE Jing-Ping, LIN Peng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2001, 25 (1): 50-56.  
    Abstract2119)      PDF (557KB)(1275)       Save
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
      
    Methane Fluxes from Mangrove Communities at Dongzhai Harbour, Hainan
    LU Chang-Yi, YE Yong, WONG Yuk-Shan, TAM N. F. Y.
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2000, 24 (1): 87-90.  
    Abstract2248)      PDF (364KB)(1122)       Save

    Using a static chamber technique, methane fluxes from sediments of five mangrove communities at four sites were studied. An average value of 0.81mg·m-2·d-1 was observed. Using polyethylene bags, methane fluxes through leaves of six mangrove species were also studied. It indicates that mangrove leaves generally absorbed atmospheric methane as an overall effect. Diurnal variations of methane fluxes from sediments of Bruguiera sexangula community at Changning site were related to tidal conditions in the forest while flat variations of methane fluxes from sediments of this community were related to soil water contents. There were two different seasonal patterns of methane flux from soils in the five mangrove communities.

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    Cited: CSCD(10)
      
    Changes in the Caloric Values of Kandelia candel Seedlings Under Salt Stress
    LIN Peng, WANG Wen-Qing
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1999, 23 (5): 466-470.  
    Abstract4429)      PDF (302KB)(848)       Save
    The paper deals with the influence of salinity on the changes in caloric values and ash contents of different parts of Kandelia candel seedlings cultivated for 170 days. The results indicate that the medium salinity had little influence on the caloric values and ash contents of hypocotyls other than those of root, stem and leaf. The caloric values of root, stem, and leaf increased with the salt stress at low salinity, and decreased with the salt stress at high salinity. The caloric values of root, stem and leaf reached the peak under the medium salinity of 15‰,20‰ and 25‰ ,respectively. The medium salinity of 15‰ was the upper limit for the normal living of K. candel The caloric value was a good physiological index for determining salt-resistance of species.
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    Cited: CSCD(19)
      
    Ecological Studies on the Resistance and Adaptation to Cold of Some Tidal Mangrove Species In China
    Yang Shengchang, Lin Peng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1998, 22 (1): 60-67.  
    Abstract2592)      PDF (557KB)(1010)       Save
    Leaf cold resistance abilities of mangrove species along the eastsouthern coast of China had been measured by conductivity method. The results show: (1)The cold resistance abilities (LT50) of 16 mangrove species at Dongzhai Estuary,Qiongshan. Hainan province were from -2.3 ℃ to -6.8℃. The species from Rhizophoraceae had higher cold resistance abilities than that from Sonneratiaceae and Meliaceae, so most of them could be classified into low cold sensitivity type (L type) ,and the late ones into high cold sensitivity type (H type). (2)As the latitude increased, the cold resistance abilities of Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum also increased, and reflected the trend of population differentiation(except one location). (3) At the same location, Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum had the lowest cold resistance abilities in summer, and higher cold resistance abilities in autumn and winter than those in spring. (4) Among the same mangrove community, Kandelia candel plants growing in the middle tidal zone had higher cold resistance ability than those in the high tidal zone, but no this difference was found in Aegiceras corniculatum. (5) Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum leaves had different cold resistance abilities according to their locations on the community crown. The cold resistance ability of leaves decreased from upper surface to lower layer, and from surface to inner part. The population differentiation ,season changes ,and leaf location variation of mangrove cold resistance abilities were due to the ecological adaptation to various habitats which were beneficial for the survival and regeneration of mangroves.
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    Cited: CSCD(26)
      
    Studies on the Mangrove Communities in Yineluo Bay of Guangxi
    Liang Shi-chu
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1996, 20 (4): 310-321.  
    Abstract2388)      PDF (764KB)(1328)       Save
    This paper deals with the characters of the flora, type, physiognomy, structure, species diversity and succession of the mangrove communities in Yingluo Bay of Gauangxi. In this district ,the mangrove communities consist of 6 species belonging to 6 genera in 4 families. Using clustering analysis, twenty two plots of the mangrove communities were classified into eleven formations. The classification results are: (l) Form Bruguinera gymnorrhiza, (2)form Bruguieira gymnorrhiza+ Rhizophora stylosa, ( 3 ) Form Rhizophora stylosa , (4) form Rhizophora stylosa+ Kandelia candel, ( 5 )form Kandelia candel, ( 6 )Form Kandelia candel+ Aegicerad corniculatum, ( 7 ) Form Kandelia candel + Avicennia marina, (8)Form Aegiceras corniculatum , ( 9 )Form Avicennia marina, ( 10 ) Form Avecennia marina + Aegiceras corniculatum and ( 11 ) Form Excoecaria agallocha. The physiognomy of the mangrove communities was dominated by both the life form (Rannkiaer’s system,1967)with phanerophyte and the leave characters with mesophylls,coriaceous texture,single form and entire margin. The structure of the mangrove communities was rather simple, one layer or two layers. The constructive species and dominant species of the mangrove communities were evident. Compared with those of terrestrial plant communities, the species diversity indices of the mangrove communities were much low. Under the influence of soil texture, nutrition, environment salinity as well as the mangrove’s adaptability to the salt environment, various types of the mangrove communities form evident ecological series. Along with the relative reduction of sea level and physical and chemical amendment of the soils, the mangrove community succession was gradual and progressive, from simple pioneer stage to the ultimate or terrestrial stage. The succession change was brought about by the mangrove themselves an the habitat. At each succession stage, the mangrove species modified the environment to be less suitable for themselves but more suitable for others. Thus the species replacement was orderly and predictable, and permited directionality for succession. With the modification of the soils from sandy, silt to clay, the changes of the mangrove communities were sequential. On the basis of their development and zonation, the typical successive series of the mangrove communities in Yingluo Bay are as Fig. 2.
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    Cited: CSCD(25)
      
    Decay Leaves Microbial Variations in Process of Natural Decomposition of Leaves Litter for Mangroves (Kandelia candel Forest) in Jiulongjiang River Estuary, Fujian
    Zhuang Tie-cheng, Lin Peng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1992, 16 (1): 17-25.  
    Abstract2536)      PDF (606KB)(773)       Save

    This paper describes research on change of the decay leaf microorganisms and leaf-litter decomposition in process of natural decomposition by man-made initation in Kandelia mangroves of Jiulongjiang River Fsturay.The results showed that:

    1.Total amounts of microorganisms of the decay leaves varies significantly during the decomposition process, all along the bacterial amounts was preponderance. The amounts of bacterial increase from 200 × 104 to 8800 × 104ind./ g.d.w, with decomposition time of leaves. That accounted for 96 to 99% of total amounts of microorganisms (including three grounp of bacteria, actinomyces and filamentous fungi etc. ) which showed the bacteria as major microorganisms in leaf-litter decomposition.

    2.The ammonifying bacteria preponderate in number from 26× 104 to 180 × 104 (ind./g.d.w.in various physiologic group of microorganisms; whereas nitrite bacteria, denitrifying bacteria and celluase decomposing microorganisms were (ind./g.d.w) 0.03×104 to 0.24×104, 0.03×104 to 0.10 ×104 and 1.14× 10 to 7.33×10 respectively. This showed that the ammonifying bacteria was the major physiologic group of organic mineralization. Ammonification, nitrification and denitrifying were the accompying processes with increasing intensity as time elapsed which reflect the features of marsh. The amounts of cellulose decomposing microorganisms had changed exceptional, population increased at earlier stage of decomposition until the fourth week to the its peck value, and decreased thereafter. The microbial activation testing result showed the similar trends in the change of microbial physiologic group mentioned above.

    3. The leaf-litter decomposition speed proceeded rapidly. One week after the drop of the leaves on the soil surface, one quarter of the organic matters was decomposed and half-decomposition time was about 6 weeks. The contents of soluble sugar and total phosphorus decreased, but total nitrogen increased in remainder leaves.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
      
    Peroxidase in two Mangrove Species, Kandelia candel and Bruguiera sexangula Seedlings, in Response to Variation of Salinity Condition
    Zheng Wen-jiao, Lin Peng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1991, 15 (3): 234-239.  
    Abstract2307)      PDF (390KB)(918)       Save
    The activity and isozyme of peroxidase in leaf and root tip of the seedling of two mangrove species, Kandelia candeI and Bruguiera sexangula, cultivated in sand beds irrigated with seawates of different salinity were studied.The results showed that: (1) With increase in salinity, the activity of peroxidase in leaf of K. candel got enhanced in lower salinity (from 0 to 10) and decreased over 15‰ salinity, but the activity in root tip decreased as the salinity increased from 0‰ to 35‰. (2) The activity of peroxidase in leaf of B. sexangula declined with increasing salinity from 5‰ to 35‰, whereas that in root tip increased with salinity from 5‰ to 10‰, and began to decrease over 15. The decreasing trend slowed down in both leaf and root tip in the range of 25--35‰ salinity. (3) The peroxidase activity of Kandelia was less sensitive to salinity than that of Bruguiera. The results showed that peroxidase activity may be used as an indicator of salinity tolerance, ie. Kandelia can grow in higher salinity than Bruguiera. (4) Electrophoresis maps of peroxidase isozyme in two plants on polyacrylamide gel indicated that the main isozyme bands were more stable than the low-class isozyme bands in response to salinity.
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    Cited: CSCD(1)
      
    Study on the Caloric Value and Ash Content of Some Mangrove Species in China
    Lin Peng, Lin Guang-hui
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1991, 15 (2): 114-120.  
    Abstract2661)      PDF (419KB)(902)       Save

    The paper deals with the changes of caloric value and ash content of the leaves in some mangrove species of China. The results were determined as follows.

    1. In the area of Qiongshan in Hainan, the gross caloric value (20.62 to 18.97 kJ/g) decreased with the increase of ash content among different mangrove species. The ash-free caloric value of all species, however, was close to 21.5 kJ/g, with little variation.

    2. For the same species, Kandelia candel, the ash contents were lower, and the gross caloric value were the higher in lower latitudes (less than 24˚N). The opposite is true for higher latitudes (more than 24˚N).

    3. For K. candel ash content decreases and the caloric value increases as the tree grows. But the ash-free caloric value changes much less.

    4. Seasonly changes of Caloric values (GCV and AFCV) of Kandelia leaves in Longhai of Fujian showed that in summer and fall was higher than that in winter and spring.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
      
    Accumulation and Biological Cycle of K and Na Elements in Bruguiera sexangula Community
    Lin Peng, He Shu-zhen
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1990, 14 (4): 312-318.  
    Abstract2044)      PDF (391KB)(1044)       Save

    This paper is a part of studies of the mangrove forests in Dongzhai harbour of Hainan island, China. It deals mainly with the accumulation and biological cycle of K and Na elements of 55-year-old Bruguiera sexangula community.

    The main results of the measurements are as follows:

    1. The amounts of K and Na elements in standing crop of this community were 669.9kg/ha and 2591.3kg/ha in which the amounts of two elements in aerial part of biomass were 425.6 for K and 908.9 for Na (kg/ha), and that of below ground biomass were 244.3 for K and 2042.4 for Na(kg/ha) respectively.

    2. In biological cycle of K and Na of this stand, the annual value of vegetation mineral uptake were 89.6 for K and 204.4 for Na(kg/ha), of its return were 49.0 for K and 99.8 for Na(kg/ha) and of its retention were 40.6 for K and 104.6 for Na(kg/ha), respectively.

    3. The turnover period of K (14 yrs.) is faster than that of Na (30 yrs .)

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
      
    Study on Dynamics of Litter Fall of Bruguiera sexangula Mangrove in Hainan Island,China
    Lin Peng, Lu Chang-yi, Wang Gong-li, Chen Huan-Xiong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1990, 14 (1): 69-74.  
    Abstract2699)      PDF (408KB)(903)       Save
    The litter fall of Bruguiera sexangula mangrove community in Hegang Village of Hainan Island has been studied for a period of 4 years form 1984 to 1987.The results showed that: (1) Mean annual litter fall production was 1255 g/m2 in this well-protected mangrove forest, which is one of the most productive tropical communities in litter production. This amount of litter fall is of a higher level as compared with those of other mangrove forests in the world. (2) The leaf, flower, fruit and twig litter fall proportions in the 4 years were 64.32%, 10.63%, 21.34% and 3.71% respectively. (3) The regression equation of monthly litter fall (Y,g/m2) and monthly mean air temperature (X,℃) was Y=5.009X–13.18 (r=0.44, df= 46) showing a greatly significant relation. (4) Litter fall yearly fluctuation rate R= 1.33.
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    Studies on Energy in Two Mangrove Communities, Bruguiera sexangula and Kandelia candel, in China
    Lin Guang-hui, Lin Peng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1988, 12 (1): 31-39.  
    Abstract2363)      PDF (912KB)(989)       Save
    By means of calorimetry measurement, the standing crop of energy, net energy production and energy conversing efficiencies of two mangrove communities, i. e. Bruguiera sexangula community & Kandelia candeI community, were determined and discussed in the present paper.The results of measurement of caloric values for various components showed that there were some differences in caloric value among components of these two mangrove communities. In general, leaves and flowers possessed higher caloric values, while roots and bark of trunk possesses lower caloric values.The standing crop of energy in B. sexangula community was 178,627 kcal. m-2, much larger than that in K. candel community (70,547kcal·m-2). There existed different distributions of energy in the various components and different layers of community. Net energy production was 15,772 kcal·m-2.a-1 for B. sexangula community (1983) and 10,456 kcal m-2·a-1 for K. candel community (1982). To the photosynthetical active radiation on the stand, their energy converting efficiencies were 3.01% and 2.01% respectively, compared with other plant communities in nature, mangrove forests possess relatively larger energy production and higher energy converting efficiencies.From the results mentioned above, it can be concluded that mangrove forests show their own characteristics on standing crop and production of .energy and play an important role in mangrove ecosystems. Therefore, it is worthy to protect and exploit mangrove forests.
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    A Brief Note on the Survey of Mangrove Conservation in Hong Kong
    Lin Peng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1987, 11 (2): 152-153.  
    Abstract1826)      PDF (146KB)(773)       Save
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    Studies on the Mangrove Ecosystem of Jiulongjiang River Estuary of Fujian V.——Accumulation and Biological Cycle of Chlorine in Kandelia candel Community
    Lian Yu-wu, Lin Peng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1986, 10 (2): 124-130.  
    Abstract2141)      PDF (435KB)(773)       Save
    This paper is a part of the studies on the mangrove forests in the estuary area of the Jiulongjiang River in Fujian Province. It deals mainly with the accumulation and biological cycle of chlorine in the artificial 20-year-old Kandelia candel community.The main results of the measurements are as follows:1. The amount of chlorine in the standing crop of this community was 3864.13kg·ha-1,in which the amount of the element in the aerial part of the biomass was 1287.75 kg·ha-1 and that of the biomass below ground was 2576.38 kg·ha-1. 2. In the biological cycle of chlorine of this stand, the value of the element in the vegetation uptake was 626.57 kg·ha-1; and that of its return, 27l.31kg·ha-1; and that of its retention 335.26kg·ha-1. 3. The length of the chlorine recycling period is 14 years.
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    A Brief Note on “The Research for Development Seminar on the Mangrove Ecosystem”
    Lin Peng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1986, 10 (1): 76-78.  
    Abstract1612)      PDF (188KB)(741)       Save
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    The Mangrove in Coast of East Guangdong Province
    Chen Shupei, Liang Zhixian, Deng Yi
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1985, 9 (1): 59-63.  
    Abstract1781)      PDF (252KB)(822)       Save
    Rhizophora stylosa, Heritiera littoralis and Lumnitzera racemosa are the new records of geographical distribution of the mangrove floristic composition in the coast district of east Guangdong. In the mangrove of this coast district, there are 13 families, 20 genera, 20 species, making up 24% of the total species of mangrove of the world, less than Hainan Island but almost equal to west Guangdong. It shows the physiognomy and structure of shrubland and forest. According to the floristiccomposition, physiognomy, structure and characteristics of habitat, it may be divided into two types: beach-mangrove and coast-semi-mangrove and seven formations.The distribution of mangrove in the coast of east Guangdong indicates the situation of the mangrove of this district in the geographical distribution of mangrove in the world and the tropical character of vegetation and the transition of vegetation from tropics to subtropics in this district.
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    Studies on the Mangrove Ecosystem of the Jiulong Jiang River Estuary in China. IV. The Accumulation and Biological Cycle of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Elements in the Kandelia candi Community
    Lin Peng, Lin Guanghui
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1985, 9 (1): 21-31.  
    Abstract1854)      PDF (611KB)(695)       Save
    This is a paper dealing with the accumulation and biological cycle of the nitrogen and phosphorus elements of the artificial 20-year-old Kandelia candel community, in the Jiulong Jiang river estuary of Fujian Province, China.The main results of measurements are as follows:1. The amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus in the standing crop of this community were 935.47 kg/ha and 112.02kg/ha; in which the amounts of the two elements in the biomass above ground were 582.86 kg/ha for N and 70.47kg/ha for P, and in the biomass underground were (kg/ha) 353.21 for N and 41.55 for P respectively.2. In biological cycle of nitrogen and phosphorus of this stand, the annual values of the vegetation mineral uptake are (kg/ha yr) 213.31 for N and 21.75 for P, and those of retention of are (kg/ha yr) 83.75 for N and 10.91 for P, and the annual amounts released are (kg/ha yr) 129.52 for N and 10.84 for P respectively.3. The speed of nitrogen recycling period (7 yrs.) is faster than that of phosphorus (10 yrs.). The biological decompositional ratio of the mangrove forest in Fujian is larger than that of the tropical rainforest in Yunnan, and it is possible that this is concerned.with the tidal habitat of the mangrove forest.
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    A Preliminary Study of the Interrelationship Between the Physiological Characteristics of Certain Enzymes in the Leaves of Two Species of Mangrove Plants and Soil Salinity in Tidal Swamps
    Lin Peng, Chen Dehai, Li Wujin
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1984, 8 (3): 222-227.  
    Abstract1916)      PDF (378KB)(689)       Save

    This paper is part of a study of the mangrove forests in the estuary area of the Jiulongjiang River of Fujian Province. It deals mainly with the reaction of certain enzymes in the leaves of two species of mangroves, Aegiceras corniculatum (Myrsinaceae) and Kandelia candel (Rhizophoraceae) to the changes in the soil salinity of tidal areas within the range of 3--12‰.The main results of tests and measurements are as follows:

    1. The reactions of the contents of peroxidase isozyme and cytochrome oxidase isozyme in the leaves of the Aegiceras corniculatum to the change in the salinity of the soil indicate that increase in the soil salinity within the range of 3--12‰ will deepen and widen the spectral band of peroxidase isozyme and cytochrome oxidase isozyme, and may even cause new enzyme band to appear in the spectra.

    2. As the soil salinity of tidal areas increases, the activity of the peroxidase in the leaves of the Aegiceras corniculatum will be intensified, but that of the glycollic acid oxidase in the leaves of the Kandelia candel will be weakened.

    3. The interrelationship of the chlorophyll contents in the leaves of the two species of mangrove plants and the soil salinity shows that when the soil salinity is within the range of 3--8‰, there will be not much change in the chlorophyll content, but there is a peak when salinity is between 8--10‰, over which the chlorophyll content will drop. This shows that it is possible that there exists a critical point in the mangrove’s adaptability to the soil salinity of tidal areas.

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    The Ecological Studies of the Subtropical Mangroves in Fujian, China
    Lin Peng, Wei Xinmin
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1981, 5 (3): 177-186.  
    Abstract2125)      PDF (1668KB)(1080)       Save

    The mangrove is a characteristic vegetation in tropical zone, but so far as China is concerned it may also extend to Fuding district (27˚20′ N), situated at the north-eastern part of Fujian, South China.The subtropical mangrove of Fujian consists of six species belonging to five families. They are Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel of Rhizophoraceae, Excoecaria agallocha of Euphorbiaceae, Acanthus ilicifolius of Acanthaceae, Aegiceras corniculatum of Myrsinaceae and Avicennia marina of Verbenaceae. In the southern coastal regions from Zhaoan to Xiamen all six species are present. The communities are composed of kandelia candel+Bruguiera gymnorrhiza-Aegiceras corniculatum association, Kandelia candel-Aegiceras corniculatum association, Avicennia marina association and Kandelia candel association. The most widely distributed community is Kandelia candel-Aegiceras corniculatum association. Kandelia candel is the dominant and the hightest trees reaching a height of eight metres. In the middle coastal regions from Xiamen to Putian, there are four species (Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Avicennia marina). In the northern coastal regions from Putian to Fuding, there is only one association dominated by Kandelia candel. The salinity of sea water may greatly affect the morphological and physiological characters of mangrove plants. It usually shows that as the osmotic pressure raises, the leaves become thick and coriaceous, whilst their stomata sink into the epidermis. In addition, it is also related with the growth and development of mangrove plant and coexisted condition of aquatic animals. Our observation indicates that when the salinity of sea water is low, for instance at 7.5–21.2%, Kandelia candel can grow normally and bring forth blossoms and fruits; the five-year-old trees may reach 1.6-2 metres in height and Balanus adhere to it in much less in number or may be absent. When the salinity of sea water is high, at 25.6–37.4‰ Kandelia candel grows weakly and the five-year-old trees are only about one meter in height and their leaves become small and succulent; they do not bloom normally, some may even die (about 30% in the area surveyed) and there often are large number Balanus attaching to the trunk. The growth in height of Kandelia candel may be related with the edaphic nitrogen content(%) of the second layer (20–40cm.), since the content of the first layer soil (0–20cm.) is not stable, and is readily influenced by the waves, the contents from the second layer were determined. There exist semilogarithmic linear correlation between them, its formula is as follows:

    log y = 0.9397 + 3.124x

    where y is the tree height (m.), x is the edaphic nitrogen content(%). r=0.8875, df=7, determined range: tree height in 0.5–2.2m., edaphic nitrogen content in 0.3–0.43(%).

    The correlation between the growth in the height of Kandelia candel and the soil salinity appears to be a parabolic curve.

    In the mangrove ecosystem, the ecological function of animals is also significant, but former investigators paid little attention to this. The insect could eat more than 30% of the leaves of mangrove plants, for example, in the community of Kandelia candel of Sanjiangkou of Putian, 95% of the leaves were found eaten by a species of tortrix moths. There are two kinds of animals adhering to the trunk and leaves of tidal forest, i. e. Chithamalus sp., which adhere to blade and Balanus amphitrite albicostatus which affix on the trunk and branches. Since they are so large in number that even the whole surface of the trunk can be covered with them. The amount of animals on the trunk of a Kandelia candel tree (height 53 cm., diameter 2 cm.) was calculated, which totals to 506 Balanus. This explains why the growth of the plant is seriously affected.

    There are benthic animals under the tidal forest, such as Sesarma sp., Pachygrapsus crassipes and Littorinopsis melanostoma and so on. They dig holes into the ground. For example, there are 122 holes, each of 0.5–1.2 cm. diameter in a 70× 70cm2 quadrat; this porous ground is greatly in favour of edaphic ventilation, favourable to the growth of plants. The mangrove is a natural shelterbelt, which has the effect of decreasing the tidal force, so it provides the tidal establishment and the building of the sludge beach. It is also of great economic value, such as the utilization of hypocotylar starch, corticose tannin and trunk wood etc. Therefore, care should be taken to protect such plant communities

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    Macrobenthic diversity and seasonal changes in the mangrove swamp of Luoyangjiang Estuary, Fujian Province
    Junhui Lin, Xuebao He, Jianjun Wang, Heshan Lin, Yaqin Huang, Kun Liu, Jianfeng Mou, Shuyi Zhang, Jinxiang Jiang
    Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (7): 791-801.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015328
    Abstract1995)   HTML281)    PDF (1029KB)(2321)       English Version    Save

    Based on a year round survey conducted in the mangrove swamp of Luoyangjiang Estuary in Fujian from August 2013 to April 2014, macrobenthic diversity, seasonal changes, and the impact of mangrove rehabilitation on the macrobenthic community were analyzed. We recorded a total of 78 species from 7 phyla in the study area and the community was dominated by annelids and arthropods. The gastropod, Assiminea brevicula (Assimineidae), was the most dominant species and was more abundant in mangrove forests than in mudflats. ANOSIM analysis showed that faunal communities were significantly different between mangrove forests and mudflats, with the former characterized by much lower macrobenthic density and biomass. Moreover, some of dominant species, such as Parasesarma plicata and Phascolosoma arcuatum, were only found in mangrove forests. Higher value of macrobenthic density was found in winter and spring, while mean biomass was higher in spring and summer. Significant differences in macrobenthic communites were observed among seasons except between winter and spring. The present study demostrated that, species composition of the mangrove macrobenthos indicated characteristics of a young mangrove plantation and seasonal changes in macrobenthic communities might be due to different breeding seasons of the dominant species. Mangrove vegetation had a noticeable impact on macrobenthic communities, as evidenced by significant difference in macrobenthic communites between the two habitats. Density of macrobenthos in mangrove forests was much lower than that found in 2009, but the sesarminid crab Parasesarma plicata became much abundant. Since mangrove forests and mudflats support different species composition of macrobenthos, planning is needed in mangrove rehabilitation for the protection of habitat diversity and heterogeneity.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
      
    Impact of Spartina alterniflora on benthic macro-invertebrates communities on mangrove wetland in Xicungang Estuary, Guangxi
    Caiyun Zhao, Xiaoyan Liu, Jiade Bai, Fengchun Lü, Junsheng Li
    Biodiv Sci    2014, 22 (5): 630-639.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.00109
    Abstract2198)   HTML145)    PDF (442KB)(4561)       Save

    In order to assess the ecological impacts of Spartina alterniflora on mangrove ecosystems, we investigated macro-invertebrate communities in S. alterniflora wetlands and a mangrove wetland between October 2012 and September 2013, in the Xicungang estuary, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The species composition, biomass and diversity of macro-invertebrates were compared at different times between the mangrove habitat and S. alterniflora community. Sixteen species from Arthropoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Cnidadia and Sipuncula were collected from the two habitats. Twelve species were found in mangrove wetlands whereas 10 species were found in S. alterniflora wetlands. Perhaps due to the invasion of S. alterniflora, Glauconome chinensis became the predominant species, leading to a greater macro-invertebrate biomass in S. alterniflora wetlands than in mangrove wetland. On the other hand, the Margalef, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson and Pieous diversity indices of macro-invertebrates were lower in S. alterniflora habitat than in mangrove habitat. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the effect of sampling periods and habitats on the number of species, biomass and diversity indices of macro-invertebrates. Our results showed that Shannon- Wiener index and Simpson diversity indices differed between the two habitats, the Margalef and Pieous diversity indices differed among sampling periods, number of species and biomass were affected by both habitats and sampling periods. Based on multiple linear regression analyses, macro-invertebrate biomass was related to the density of S. alterniflora, and Shannon-Wiener, Simpson diversity and species richness of macro-invertebrates were all related with the height of S. alterniflora. According to our NMDS (non-metric multidimensional scaling) analysis, macro-invertebrate communities in S. alterniflora habitat mainly differed from those of mangrove habitats due to sampling periods. In conclusion, the invasion of S. alterniflora in mangrove wetlands in Xicungang estuary increased the biomass of macro-invertebrates, while decreased the diversity of them, and also changed the community structure of macro-invertebrate assemblages.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
      
    Ellobiid molluscs of Chinese mangrove habitats
    Yi Liu, Mao Wang, Wenqing Wang, Changyi Lu
    Biodiv Sci    2011, 19 (6): 723-728.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.06129
    Abstract3751)   HTML118)    PDF (215KB)(4249)       Save

    The family Ellobiidae is a special group of primitive pulmonate molluscs that live in tropical and subtropical areas, mainly in high tidal and supratidal zones of coastal areas. Ellobiids occur widely and abundantly in mangrove areas. Of the 240 species known globally, over half of them have been recorded in mangrove habitats. In this paper, we summarize species of halophilic ellobiids in China and the relationship between ellobiids and mangroves. We discuss the achievements of mangrove ellobiids studies in the fields of species composition, distribution, ecological function and behavior. We also report a complete list of the ellobiid species from mangroves and their distribution within mainland China, including 21 newly recorded species. It is implied that this group is very sensitive to environmental changes and human disturbances, therefore it can be used as a bio-indicator for sea dike construction, which is an important proposed research topic in future.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
      
    Mangrove Resources, Human Disturbance and Rehabilitation Action in China
    FAN HANGQING
    Biodiv Sci    1995, 03 (Suppl.): 49-54.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1995044
    Abstract2765)      PDF (175KB)(3346)       Save
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    Comparative study of the macrobenthic community in intertidal mangrove and non-mangrove habitats in Tong’an Bay, Fujian Province
    Xiping Zhou, Lizhe Cai, Sujing Fu, Wen Wang
    Biodiv Sci    2010, 18 (1): 60-66.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.060
    Abstract3519)   HTML99)    PDF (359KB)(2897)       Save

    Research on the biodiversity of mangrove ecosystems should include not only the plants but other components, such as the macrobenthos. In order to understand the response of the macrobenthos to a mangrove habitat with high organics and nutrients, we compared the mangrove and non-mangrove macrobenthic communities, and analyzed their spatial-temporal distributions in these two habitats from April 2006 to January 2007 in Tong’an Bay, Fujian. Six sampling stations were set in Tong’an Bay, four of them (FL1, FL2, XA-A and XA-B) were in the mangrove habitat, the other two (FL3 and XA-C) were in the non-mangrove habitat. An analysis of sediment properties showed that total organic matter (TOM) of the three sampling stations at Fenglin exceeded the critical threshold, namely 3.4%, and TOM in mangrove stations was higher than in the non-mangrove ones. A total of 91 macrobenthic taxa were obtained from the six sampling stations in Tong’an Bay, including 77 and 67 taxa from the mangrove and non-mangrove habitats, respectively. Mean macrobenthic densities in the mangrove and non-mangrove habitats were 4,445.8 inds/m2and 1,707.2 inds/m2, respectively. Mean biomasses in the mangrove and non-mangrove habitats were 51.1 g/m2 and 94.6 g/m2, respectively. The results of an independent-samples t-test showed that mean density and mean biomass were significantly different in the two habitats. The present study revealed that the mangrove habitat has a positive influence on the Oligochaeta, such as Limnodriloides sp., that thrives in the high TOM sediments. Because of the shorter inundation period in the mangrove habitat, however, free-living molluscs and crustaceans preferred the non-mangrove habitat. Other sediment properties such as interstitial salinity and median particle diameter also affected the macrobenthic community.

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    The macrofaunal community in Fenglin mangrove area, Xiamen
    Xiuchun Lin, Lizhe Cai, Li Ma, Yang Gao, Li Yang, Weiming Liu
    Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (2): 128-135.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050051
    Abstract4477)      PDF (478KB)(4674)       Save
    To elucidate the macrofaunal community structure and diversity in Jimei Fenglin mangrove area, we investigated macrofauna in January, April, July, and October 2002. A total of 42 species were collected and identified. Of these, the dominant species in biomass were Cerithidea cingulata and Uca arcuata, while the dominant species in density were Limnodriloides sp. and Assiminea brevicula. The average density and average biomass at all sampling stations in four surveys was 1,990 ind./m2 and 139.0 g/m2, respectively. The density ranked in the following order: January (winter)>April (spring) >October (autumn) >July (summer), while the biomass ranked January>October>April>July. Cluster analysis and quantitative distribution showed that the seasonal variations of Cerithidea cingulata, Uca arcuata, Limnodriloides sp., and Assiminea brevi-cula were different. The average species diversity index of the macrofaunal community in Jimei Fenglin in October 2002 (2.66) was higher than that in Futian, Shenzhen (0.56). The environmental factors that affect macrofaunal diversity were analyzed.
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    A study on seasonal dynamics of species diversity of fishes in tidal waters of creeks within the mangroves of Yingluo Bay, Guangxi
    HE Bin-Yuan, FAN Hang-Qing
    Biodiv Sci    2002, 10 (2): 175-180.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002022
    Abstract4215)      PDF (252KB)(3134)       Save
    Based on seasonal investigations by block net in 1999, the dynamics of species diversity of fishes in creek tidal waters within mangrove swamps of Yingluo Bay, Guangxi, were studied. Fifty four species of fishes, belonging to 44 genera and 29 families, were recorded. The numbers of species occurring in one to four seasons were 27, 8, 11 and 8, respectively. The dominant species in each season were very obvious, but the most dominant species differed in different seasons. The most dominant species were Clupanodon punctatus in spring, Osteomugil ophuyseni in summer, Ambassis gymnocephalus in autumn and Leiognathus ruconius in winter. As to theirtemperature tolerances, the warm-water species absolutely occupied the largest percentage. Numbers of demersal species were greater than other ecological types. Thirty species in spring, 30 in summer, 26 in autumn, and 22 in winter were captured in the creek waters. Twenty species were shared between summer and autumn, which was higher than that between any other pairs of seasons. This was also reflected in the similarity index between the two seasons, which reached 55.6% for the summer autumn comparison. The indices of richness D , diversity H ′, and evenness J , were all higher in autumn than in other seasons. Numbers of fish species and the three biodiversity indices in creek tidal waters were all higher than that in mangrove fringed tidal waters. The species diversity of the fish community in these waters was low in comparison with that in tropical mangrove areas.
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