植物生态学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (7): 686-701.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.1043

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

氮添加对山西太岳山天然油松林主要植物叶片性状的影响

肖迪1, 王晓洁1, 张凯1, 何念鹏2, 侯继华1,*()   

  1. 1北京林业大学资源与生态系统过程北京市重点实验室, 北京 100083
    2中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-29 接受日期:2015-12-27 出版日期:2016-07-10 发布日期:2016-07-07
  • 通讯作者: 侯继华 E-mail:houjihua@bjfu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(TD- 2011-07)、国家自然科学基金青年基金(31000263)、国家自然科学基金面上项目(31470506)

Effects of nitrogen addition on leaf traits of common species in natural Pinus tabuliformis forests in Taiyue Mountain, Shanxi Province, China

Di XIAO1, Xiao-Jie WANG1, Kai ZHANG1, Nian-Peng HE2, Ji-Hua HOU1,*()   

  1. 1Key Laboratory for Forest Resources & Ecosystem Processes of Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    and
    2Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2015-01-29 Accepted:2015-12-27 Online:2016-07-10 Published:2016-07-07
  • Contact: Ji-Hua HOU E-mail:houjihua@bjfu.edu.cn

摘要:

为探讨植物性状对大气氮沉降的响应与适应机制, 该文以中国特有的、在北方温性针叶林中广泛分布的天然油松(Pinus tabuliformis)林为研究对象, 在2009-2013年开展了氮添加对植物叶片性状影响的野外控制试验, 4个氮添加浓度分别为0 kg·hm-2·a-1 (CK)、50 kg·hm-2·a-1 (低氮)、100 kg·hm-2·a-1 (中氮)和150 kg·hm-2·a-1 (高氮)。试验过程中分别测定了油松、蒙古栎(Quercus mongolica)、茶条槭(Acer ginnala)、毛榛(Corylus mandshurica)、沙梾(Cornus bretschneideri)、绣线菊(Spiraea salicifolia)、金银忍冬(Lonicera maackii)、羊须草(Carex callitrichos)、龙常草(Diarrhena mandshurica)、大火草(Anemone tomentosa)和玉竹(Polygonatum odoratum)等11种主要植物的9种叶片性状, 包括叶厚度(LT)、比叶面积(SLA)、干物质含量(LDMC)、叶氮含量(LNC)、叶磷含量(LPC)等。结果表明: 1)在氮添加影响下, 玉竹等个别物种的LTSLA、绣线菊等部分物种的叶面积(LA)和LDMC差异显著, 上述所有物种的LNC与大多数物种的叶绿素含量(CC)、LPC显著增加, 油松等9种植物叶片N:P发生显著变化, 不同年龄、不同类型的植物叶片对氮添加的响应不同。2)叶性状之间普遍存在显著相关性, 如SLALNCLPC极显著正相关, LTLNCLPC极显著负相关, 且相关性随氮添加强度变化。3) 11种植物的叶片特征空间分布规律与叶经济谱的描述一致, 氮添加使植物在特征空间中的位置向叶片薄、生长快、叶寿命短的“快速投资-收益型”一端发生移动; 在垂直方向上, 阔叶乔木、灌木及草本的位置与针叶乔木的移动方向相反。当环境改变时, 植物会改变生存策略, 调整资源分配, 从而保证物种间相对位置和群落整体结构的稳定性。叶经济谱的形成不依赖于环境的变化, 而是植物一种固有的属性。

关键词: 大气氮沉降, 叶经济谱, 叶片功能性状, 天然油松林, 氮添加

Abstract:
Aims Our objectives were to explore the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on leaf traits and ecological stoichiometry characteristics of common species in natural Pinus tabuliformis forests.
Methods We conducted the experiment of nitrogen (N) addition from 2009 to 2013 in the natural Pinus tabuliformis forests in Taiyue Mountain, Shanxi, China. The levels of N addition were 0 (control), 50 (low-N), 100 (medium-N) and 150 (high-N) kg·hm-2·a-1, respectively. Eleven common plant species in 12 20 m × 20 m plots were selected, including Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus mongolica, Acer ginnala, Corylus mandshurica, Cornus bretschneideri, Spiraea salicifolia, Lonicera maackii, Carex callitrichos, Diarrhena mandshurica, Anemone tomentosa, and Polygonatum odoratum. Nine leaf traits were measured, including leaf thickness (LT), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC), leaf phosphorus content (LPC), and other four.
Important findings We found that: 1) LT and SLA of Polygonatum odoratum significantly differed among four levels of N addition. Leaf area (LA) and LDMC of several species, such as Spiraea salicifolia, had significant difference among the N addition concentration. LNC of all species, chlorophyll content (CC) and LPC of most species increased significantly with the addition of N. Leaf N:P of 9 species varied significantly, and leaves with different types and ages showed different responses to N addition. 2) Leaf traits were significantly correlated with each other. For instance, SLA was significantly positively correlated with LNC and LPC. In contrast LT was negatively connected with LNC and LPC. In addition, the degree of correlation changed with the level of N addition. 3) The pattern of species distribution in leaf trait space was consistent with the prediction from the theory of Leaf Economic Spectrum (LES). N addition drove species moving along axis 1 in the trait space, and propelled them towards different directions along axis 2, which indicated that these species tended to take the “fast investment-return” strategy. These results suggested that with the change of environmental conditions, plants changed their survival strategy and adjusted resource allocation to maintain the stability of communities. This is the inherent characteristic of plants, thus the formation of LES did not depend on the environment change.

Key words: atmospheric nitrogen deposition, leaf economic spectrum, leaf functional traits, natural Pinus tabuliformis forest, nitrogen addition