植物生态学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (9): 742-752.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0244

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

华北地区落叶松林的分布、群落结构和物种多样性

方文静1,蔡琼1,朱江玲1,吉成均1,岳明2,郭卫华3,张峰4,高贤明5,唐志尧1,方精云1,*()   

  1. 1北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京大学生态研究中心, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
    2西北大学西部资源生物与现代生物技术教育部重点实验室, 西安 710069
    3山东大学生命科学学院生态学与生物多样性研究所, 山东青岛 266237
    4山西大学黄土高原研究所, 太原 030006
    5中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-03 接受日期:2018-12-24 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2020-01-03
  • 通讯作者: 方精云 E-mail:jyfang@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础性工作专项(2011FY110300);国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY210200)

Distribution, community structures and species diversity of larch forests in North China

FANG Wen-Jing1,CAI Qiong1,ZHU Jiang-Ling1,JI Cheng-Jun1,YUE Ming2,GUO Wei-Hua3,ZHANG Feng4,GAO Xian-Ming5,TANG Zhi-Yao1,FANG Jing-Yun1,*()   

  1. 1Institute of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China
    3Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong 266237, China
    4Institute of Loess Plateau, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
    5State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
  • Received:2018-10-03 Accepted:2018-12-24 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2020-01-03
  • Contact: FANG Jing-Yun E-mail:jyfang@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Basic Work of Science and Technology of China(2011FY110300);Supported by the National Basic Work of Science and Technology of China(2015FY210200)

摘要:

华北落叶松(Larix principis-rupprechtii)林、日本落叶松(L. kaempferi)林及太白红杉(L. chinensis)林是华北地区常见的3种落叶松林类型, 其中日本落叶松林为人工林, 华北落叶松林既有天然分布又有人工种植, 太白红杉林则主要是天然林。该研究基于野外调查数据, 对这3种落叶松林的分布、物种组成、群落结构、物种多样性及其与环境间的关系进行了分析。研究发现, 3种落叶松林的分布受年平均气温的影响较大, 随着年平均气温的增加, 落叶松林的天然分布减少而人工种植的分布增加。3种森林中落叶松的林分径级及树高均为右偏分布, 说明3种落叶松林均处于相对稳定的演替阶段。3种落叶松林均拥有较高的物种丰富度且差异显著, 其中太白红杉林的物种丰富度最大(39.3 ± 17.9), 而华北落叶松林的物种丰富度最小(人工林27.2 ± 17.7, 天然林27.5 ± 13.8)。除最大树高与经度的关系不显著以外, 落叶松林的最大胸径和最大树高及物种丰富度均随经纬度的增加而显著降低, 随着年降水量的增加而显著增加。此外, 年平均气温对落叶松林的总物种丰富度影响不大, 但是对其群落结构影响显著。随着年平均气温的升高, 落叶松林的最大胸径显著降低而最大树高却显著增加。落叶松天然林和落叶松人工林物种多样性的地理分布格局及与气候因子间的关系与落叶松林总体的基本一致, 但群落结构的格局不尽相同: 随着经纬度的增加, 落叶松人工林的最大树高增加而天然林的最大树高减小; 落叶松天然林的最大胸径和最大树高分别随年平均气温的升高和年降水量的增加而减小, 而落叶松人工林的最大胸径和最大树高分别随年平均气温的升高和年降水量的增加而增大。

关键词: 落叶松林, 华北落叶松, 日本落叶松, 太白红杉, 群落结构, 物种组成, 物种多样性

Abstract:
Aims Larch forests are important for timber harvesting and water-soil conservation in North China. To explore the distribution, community structure and species diversity of larch forests is important for the vegetation conservation and sustainable utilization in North China.
Methods We collected species composition and local environment for 215 forest plots dominated by three common larch species, namely, Larix principis-rupprechtii, L. kaempferi and L. chinensis, in North China during 2000-2017. Among these types, L. kaempferi forests are planted, while L. chinensis forests are almost natural, and most of L. principis-rupprechtii forests are natural. Based these data, we used the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to explore the relationship between species composition and environment. We also explored the pattern of community structure and species diversity of these three forests in relation to environmental factors.
Important findings Mean annual air temperature (MAT) was the most important factor for the distribution of these larch forests. The proportion of natural forest decreased, while that of planted forest increased, with MAT. Diameter at breast height (DBH) and height distribution of three larch forests were right-skewed, indicating that all of these larch forests are at relatively stable successional stage. Species richness differ remarkably among different larch forests, which was highest in the L. chinensis forests (39.3 ± 17.9), followed by the L. kaempferi forests (37.4 ± 22.4), and lowest in the L. principis-rupprechtii forests (planted forests 27.2 ± 17.7, natural forests 27.5 ± 13.8). Species richness, the maximum DBH and the maximum height decreased with latitudes and longitudes. Species richness, the maximum DBH and the maximum height increased with annual precipitation. However, species richness showed no significant trend, and the maximum height increased, while the maximum DBH decreased, with MAT. The patterns of species richness along geographical and climatic gradients were consistent between the planted, the natural and the overall (including both planted and natural) larch forests. However, the patterns of community structure differed remarkably among planted, natural and overall larch forests. The maximum height of planted forests increased, while that of natural forests decreased, with latitude and longitude. The maximum DBH and height of natural forests decreased, while those of planted forests increased, with MAT and annual precipitation, respectively.

Key words: larch forest, Larix principis-rupprechtii, Larix kaempferi, Larix chinensis, community structure, species composition, species diversity