植物生态学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (华北专辑): 0-0.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0244

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华北地区落叶松林的分布、群落结构和物种多样性(专辑论文)

方文静1,蔡琼1,朱江玲1,吉成均1,岳明2,郭卫华3,张峰4,高贤明5,唐志尧6,方精云7   

  1. 1. 北京大学
    2. 西北大学生命科学学院
    3. 山东大学 生命科学学院
    4. 山西大学生命科学学院
    5. 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点试验室
    6. 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系
    7. 北京大学环境与资源学院生态学系
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-03 修回日期:2019-04-17 出版日期:2019-09-30 发布日期:2019-04-23
  • 通讯作者: 方精云
  • 基金资助:
    科技部国家科技基础条件平台运行服务项目;湖南省科技厅重点项目资助

Distribution, community structures and species diversity of larch forests in North China

  • Received:2018-10-03 Revised:2019-04-17 Online:2019-09-30 Published:2019-04-23
  • Contact: Jing-Yun FANG

摘要: 华北落叶松(Larix principis-rupprechtii)林、日本落叶松(L. kaempferi)林及太白红杉(L. chinensis)林是华北地区常见的三种落叶松林类型, 其中日本落叶松林为人工林, 华北落叶松林既有天然分布又有人工种植, 太白红杉林则主要是天然林。该研究基于野外调查数据, 对这三种落叶松林的分布、物种组成、群落结构、物种多样性及其与环境间的关系进行了分析。研究发现, 三种落叶松林的分布受年平均气温的影响较大, 随着年平均气温的增加, 落叶松林的天然分布减少而人工种植的分布增加。三种森林中落叶松的林分径级及树高均为右偏分布, 说明三种落叶松林均处于相对稳定的演替阶段。三种落叶松林均拥有较高的物种丰富度且差异显著, 其中太白红杉林的物种丰富度最大(39.3 ± 17.9), 而华北落叶松林的物种丰富度最小(人工林27.2 ± 17.7,天然林27.5 ± 13.8)。除最大树高与经度的关系不显著以外, 落叶松林的最大胸径和最大树高及物种丰富度均随经纬度的增加而显著降低, 随着年降水量的增加而显著增加。此外, 年平均气温对落叶松林的总物种丰富度影响不大, 但是对其群落结构影响显著。随着年平均气温的升高, 落叶松林的最大胸径显著降低而最大树高却显著增加。天然落叶松林和人工落叶松林物种多样性的地理分布格局及与气候因子间的关系与落叶松林总体的基本一致, 但群落结构的格局不尽相同: 随着经纬度的增加, 落叶松人工林的最大树高增加而天然林的最大树高减小; 落叶松天然林的最大胸径和最大树高分别随年平均气温的升高和年降水量的增加而减小, 而落叶松人工林的最大胸径和最大树高分别随年平均气温的升高和年降水量的增加而增大。

Abstract:
Aims Larch forests are important for timber harvesting and water-soil conservation in North China. To explore the distribution, community structure and species diversity of larch forests is important for the vegetation conservation and sustainable utilization in North China. Methods We collected species composition and local environment for 215 forest plots dominated by three common larch species, namely, Larix principis-rupprechtii, L. kaempferi and L. chinensis, in North China during 2000-2017. Of these types, L. kaempferi forests are planted, while L. chinensis forests are almost natural, and most of L. principis-rupprechtii forests are natural. Based these data, we used the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to explore the relationship between species composition and environment. We also explored the pattern of community structure and species diversity of these three forests in relation to environmental factors. Important findings Mean annual air temperature (MAT) was the most important factor for the distribution of these larch forests. The proportion of natural forest decreased, while that of panted forest increased, with MAT. Diameter at breast height (DBH) and height distribution of three larch forests were right-skewed, indicating that all of these larch forests are at relatively stable successional stage. Species richness differ remarkably among different larch forests, which was highest in the L. chinensis forests (39.3 ± 17.9), followed by the L. kaempferi forests (37.4 ± 22.4), and lowest in the L. principis-rupprechtii forests (planted forests 27.2 ± 17.7, natural forests 27.5 ± 13.8). Species richness, the maximum DBH and the maximum height decreased with latitudes and longitudes. Species richness, the maximum DBH and the maximum height increased with annual precipitation. However, species richness showed no significant trend, and the maximum height increased, while the maximum DBH decreased, with MAT. The patterns of species richness along geographical and climatic gradients were consistent between the planted, the natural and the overall (including both planted and natural) larch forests. However, the patterns of community structure differed remarkably among planted, natural and overall larch forests. The maximum height of planted forests increased, while that of natural forests decreased, with latitude and longitude. The maximum DBH and height of natural forests decreased, while those of planted forests increased, with MAT and annual precipitation, respectively.