Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 439-449.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0331

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of glyphosate on interspecific competition between Solidago canadensis and Imperata cylindrica

Chun-Feng GU1,2, Xiao-Qi YE2, Ming WU2,*(), Xue-Xin SHAO2, Sheng-Wu JIAO2   

  1. 1College of Life and Environment Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, China
    and
    2Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Wetland Ecosystem Research Station of Hangzhou Bay, State Forestry Administration, Fuyang, Zhejiang 311400, China
  • Received:2016-10-27 Accepted:2017-02-28 Online:2017-05-19 Published:2017-04-10
  • Contact: Ming WU E-mail:hangzhoubay@126.com

Abstract:

Aims The extensive use of herbicide to control invasive plants would change the relationship between alien and neighboring plants. In order to provide data for rational use of herbicide and a theoretical reference for further studies on the ecological effects of glyphosate, we explored the variation of the relationship between an invasive plant Solidago canadensis and a native plant Imperata cylindrica when they were sprayed glyphosate.
Methods A replacement series experiment was conducted from June to August 2016 in Wetland Ecosystem Research Station of Hangzhou Bay, State Forestry Administration, to examine the effects of glyphosate at seven concentration levels (0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8 mL·L-1) on the growth and interspecific competition of S. canadensis and I. cylindrica.
Important findings (1) Glyphosate treatment significantly inhibited the growth of S. canadensis and I. cylindrica (p < 0.05). During the test, cumulative growth of height and leaf number of S. canadensis were apparently reduced with the increase of glyphosate concentration, but the leaf number of S. canadensis treated with 0.3- 1.5 mL·L-1 glyphosate was re-growing with time, while the one treated with 1.8 mL·L-1 was mostly dead. The withering rate of tiller and green leaf of I. cylindrica also significantly increased with the increase of glyphosate concentration, and the growth indices of this plant treated with 0.3-0.6 mL·L-1 were also re-growing with time. (2) Glyphosate treatment significantly affected interspecific competition (p < 0.05), which diminished as the glyphosate concentration increased. (3) Interspecific competition has significant influence on the biomass allocation of S. canadensis (p < 0.05). When facing competition, S. canadensis would allocate more organic matter to root and thus increase the ratio of root to shoot. Competition only inhibited the tiller number and total biomass of I. cylindrica, but insignificantly affected its ratio of root to shoot. (4) The interaction between glyphosate treatment and S. canadensis-I. cylindrica interspecific relationship also significantly influenced the biomass of S. canadensis and I. cylindrica (p < 0.05), but insignificantly affected the root/shoot ratio of two plants. Different plants have different tolerance to glyphosate stress. Compared with native plant I. cylindrica, S. canadensis has stronger tolerance to glyphosate. Low-concentration glyphosate could decrease the competitive intensity between S. canadensis and I. cylindrica, which may disturb the structure and dynamics of plant communities.

Key words: herbicide, invasive plant, native plant, growth, interspecific relationship

Table 1

Plant mortality rate of Solidago canadensis and Imperata cylindrica treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (mean ± SE)"

草甘膦处理
Glyphosate
treatment
植株死亡率 Plant mortality rate (%)
单种加拿大一枝黄花
S. canadensis
grown in monoculture
混种加拿大一枝黄花
S. canadensis grown in mixture
单种白茅
I. cylindrica grown in monoculture
混种白茅
I. cylindrica grown in mixture
G0 0.00 ± 0.00aA 0.00 ± 0.00aA 0.00 ± 0.00aA 0.00 ± 0.00aA
G0.3 0.00 ± 0.00aA 0.00 ± 0.00aA 0.00 ± 0.00aA 0.00 ± 0.00aA
G0.6 14.28 ± 10.71aA 0.00 ± 0.00aB 14.29 ± 9.22bA 14.29 ± 9.22aA
G0.9 7.14 ± 4.61aA 7.14 ± 7.14aA 39.29 ± 12.02bA 7.14 ± 7.14aA
G1.2 25.00 ± 14.43abA 0.00 ± 0.00aB 71.43 ± 12.71cA 50.00 ± 15.43bA
G1.5 21.43 ± 8.50abA 50.00 ± 10.91bA 89.29 ± 7.43cA 57.14 ±14.86bcB
G1.8 46.43 ± 14.86bA 64.29 ± 14.28bA 92.86 ± 7.14cA 85.71 ± 9.2bA

Fig. 1

The growth indices of Solidago canadensis after spraying glyphosate at different growth stages (mean ± SE). A, B, S. canadensis grown in monoculture. C, D, S. canadensis grown in mixture. G0, G0.3, G0.6, G0.9, G1.2, G1.5 and G1.8 see Table 1."

Fig. 2

The growth indices of Imperata cylindrica after spraying glyphosate at different growth stages (mean ± SE). A, B, I. cylindrica grown in monoculture. C, D, I. cylindrica grown in mixture. G0, G0.3, G0.6, G0.9, G1.2, G1.5 and G1.8 see Table 1."

Table 2

Effects of planting method and glyphosate treatment on the growth of Solidago canadensis and Imperata cylindrica"

生长指标 Growth index 种植方式 Planting method 草甘膦处理 Glyphosate treatment 交互作用 Interaction
F p F p F p
加拿大一枝黄花 S. canadensis
总生物量 Total biomass 69.695 0.000** 20.433 0.000** 2.965 0.011*
地上生物量 Aboveground biomass 82.594 0.000** 20.185 0.000** 0.473 0.030*
地下生物量 Underground biomass 22.363 0.000** 11.761 0.000** 2.881 0.013*
株高 Plant height 18.520 0.000** 18.010 0.000** 3.000 0.010*
绿叶数 Green leaf number 0.604 0.439 11.192 0.000** 1.621 0.151
根冠比 Root /shoot ratio 6.773 0.011* 0.826 0.553 1.643 0.145
植株死亡率 Plant mortality rate 0.012 0.912 11.057 0.000** 2.336 0.039*
白茅 I. cylindrica
总生物量 Total biomass 37.776 0.000** 37.701 0.000** 7.802 0.000**
地上生物量 Aboveground biomass 32.195 0.000** 29.126 0.000** 5.642 0.000**
地下生物量 Underground biomass 36.954 0.000** 36.851 0.000** 8.675 0.000**
分蘖数 Tiller number 13.195 0.000** 50.831 0.000** 5.75 0.000**
绿叶长度 Length of green leaf 1.379 0.244 52.523 0.000** 1.254 0.288
根冠比 Root/shoot ratio 0.615 0.435 0.599 0.730 2.357 0.058
植株死亡率 Plant mortality rate 5.242 0.025** 34.112 0.000** 0.971 0.450

Fig. 3

Effects of different concentrations of glyphosate on total biomass (A), aboveground biomass (B), belowground biomass (C) and root/shoot ratio (D) of Solidago canadensis (mean ± SE). Different lowercase letters indicate that the indices are significantly different among different concentrations of glyphosate (p < 0.05) for plants grown in monocultures. Different uppercase letters indicate that the indices are significantly different among different concentrations of glyphosate (p < 0.05) for plants grown in mixtures. G0, G0.3, G0.6, G0.9, G1.2, G1.5 and G1.8 see Table 1."

Fig. 4

Effects of different concentrations of glyphosate on total biomass (A), aboveground biomass (B), belowground biomass (C) and root/shoot ratio (D) of Imperata cylindrica (mean ± SE). Different lowercase letters indicate that the indices are significantly different among different concentrations of glyphosate (p < 0.05) for plants grown in monocultures. Different uppercase letters indicate that the indices are significantly different among different concentrations of glyphosate (p < 0.05) for plants grown in mixtures. G0, G0.3, G0.6, G0.9, G1.2, G1.5 and G1.8 see Table 1."

Fig. 5

Effects of different concentrations of glyphosate on the relative yields of Solidago canadensis (A) and Imperata cylindrica (B) (mean ± SE). Different lowercase letters indicate that relative yields are significantly different among different concentrations of glyphosate (p < 0.05). G0, G0.3, G0.6, G0.9, G1.2, G1.5 and G1.8 see Table 1."

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