Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (1): 37-45.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0261

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the root growth of male and female Populus cathayana individuals grown under different sexual combination patterns

GAO Wen-Tong1,ZHANG Chun-Yan1,2,DONG Ting-Fa1,2,XU Xiao1,2,*()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, China
    2 Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation (China West Normal University), Ministry of Education, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, China
  • Received:2018-10-29 Accepted:2019-01-09 Online:2019-04-25 Published:2019-01-20
  • Contact: XU Xiao E-mail:xuxiao_cwnu@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31370596)

Abstract:

Aims Accumulating evidence suggests that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can promote the growth of plant roots. However, the effects of AMF on the root growth of dioecious plants, particularly those grown under different sexual combination patterns, remain largely unknown, this study therefore aimed at improving our understanding of the roles of AMF in these systems.
Methods In the present study, homogenized soil (river sand:surface soil:vermiculite = 1:1:1, volume ratio) was used as growth substrate. The Populus cathayana saplings uninoculated and inoculated with AMF under three sex combination patterns (male vs. male, MM; female vs. female, FF; male vs. female, MF) were defined as control (CK) and AMF treatment group, respectively. Subsequently, we compared the differences in colonization rate, root dry mass, root morphology, carbon (C) content and nitrogen (N) content between CK and AMF treatments under different sexual combination patterns.
Important findings Our results indicated that colonization rate, root dry mass, root morphology (except root branching intensity, specific root surface area) and C, N content were remarkably altered upon inoculation with AMF in comparison to uninoculated controls. Furthermore, the sexual combination patterns were shown to significantly affect root dry mass, root morphology and C, N content of male and female P. cathayana. After inoculation with AMF, root dry mass, root morphology and N content of female individuals were increased whereas these parameters of males were decreased or slightly increased in inter-sexual groups compared with the respective intra-sexual groups. Collectively, our data demonstrate the growth-promoting effects of AMF on the roots of P. cathayana individuals grown under different sexual combination patterns, and such beneficial effects are most pronounced in females grown under inter-sexual combination patterns.

Key words: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Populus cathayana, dioecious, cultivation pattern, root growth

Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of mixed-sexes plantation designs, each with two seedlings."

Fig. 2

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the colonization rate and root dry mass of male and female Populus cathayana individuals grown under different sexual combination patterns (mean ± SE, n = 7). Different lowercase letters above the columns represent significant differences between corresponding treatments according to Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05). C, combination pattern effect; I, inoculation effect; C × I, combination pattern and inoculation interaction effect. ns, not significant; ***, p < 0.001. MM/M, males in the intra-sexual combination; FF/F, females in the intra-sexual combination; MF/M, males in the inter-sexual combination; MF/F, females in the inter-sexual combination."

Table 1

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the root morphology of male and female Populus cathayana individuals grown under different sexual combination patterns (mean ± SE, n = 7)"

组别
Group
组合
Combination pattern
分枝强度
Root branching
intensity (× 102)
比表面积
Specific root
surface area (× 102)
比根长
Specific root
length (× 103)
总根长
Total root length
(cm × 103)
根尖数
Root tips
number (× 103)
对照
Control
雄雄/雄 MM/M 5.01 ± 0.34b 3.49 ± 0.49ab 5.97 ± 0.49b 25.58 ± 2.23ef 20.97 ± 1.69cd
雌雌/雌 FF/F 4.26 ± 0.37b 2.99 ± 0.24bc 4.58 ± 0.34cd 33.08 ± 2.39de 19.09 ± 1.84d
雄雌/雄 MF/M 7.81 ± 0.52a 1.75 ± 0.27d 3.80 ± 0.28d 14.81 ± 1.25f 17.71 ± 1.37d
雄雌/雌 MF/F 7.83 ± 0.29a 2.70 ± 0.44c 5.04 ± 0.54bcd 42.46 ± 4.38cd 18.33 ± 1.50d
AMF 雄雄/雄 MM/M 4.46 ± 0.30b 2.14 ± 0.20cd 4.09 ± 0.18d 58.47 ± 4.25c 25.66 ± 1.27c
雌雌/雌 FF/F 4.83 ± 0.34b 3.28 ± 0.16ab 5.67 ± 0.48bc 105.30 ± 9.82b 38.47 ± 1.75b
雄雌/雄 MF/M 6.70 ± 0.53a 2.89 ± 0.20bc 4.99 ± 0.43bcd 55.88 ± 5.66c 25.95 ± 1.51c
雄雌/雌 MF/F 6.88 ± 0.31a 3.99 ± 0.31a 7.29 ± 0.52a 137.96 ± 8.17a 51.88 ± 3.42a
p > FI 0.069ns 0.126ns 0.033* <0.001*** <0.001***
p > FC <0.001*** 0.011* 0.002** <0.001*** <0.001***
p > FC×I 0.142ns <0.001*** <0.001*** <0.001*** <0.001***

Fig. 3

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the root system architecture of male and female Populus cathayana individuals grown under different sexual combination patterns. MM/M, males in the intra-sexual combination; FF/F, females in the intra-sexual combination; MF/M, males in the inter-sexual combination; MF/F, females in the inter-sexual combination."

Fig. 4

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the C content and N content in roots of male and female Populus cathayana individuals grown under different sexual combination patterns (mean ± SE, n = 7). Different lowercase letters above the columns represent significant differences between corresponding treatments according to Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05). C, combination pattern effect; I, inoculation effect; C × I, combination pattern and inoculation interaction effect. ns, not significant; ***, p < 0.001. MM/M, males in the intra-sexual combination; FF/F, females in the intra-sexual combination; MF/M, males in the inter-sexual combination; MF/F, females in the inter-sexual combination."

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