植物生态学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (6): 911-918.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2006.0115

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

海南岛野生兰科植物多样性及其保护区域的优先性

余文刚1,2,3, 罗毅波1,*(), 金志强2   

  1. 1 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学重点实验室,北京 100093
    2 中国热带农业科学院热带作物生物技术国家重点实验室,海口 571101
    3 华南热带农业大学,海南儋州 571737
  • 收稿日期:2005-11-04 接受日期:2006-02-20 出版日期:2005-11-04 发布日期:2006-11-30
  • 通讯作者: 罗毅波
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: luoyb@ibeas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家环保中国国家级自然保护区建设空间格局研究项目

STUDY ON SPECIES DIVERSITY AND PRIORITY AREA OF WILD OROHIDS IN HAINAN ISLAND

YU Wen-Gang1,2,3, LUO Yi-Bo1,*(), JIN Zhi-Qiang2   

  1. 1 Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2 The National Key Biotechnology Laboratory for Tropical Crops Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou 571101, China
    3 South China University of Tropical Agriculture, Danzhou, Hainan 571737, China
  • Received:2005-11-04 Accepted:2006-02-20 Online:2005-11-04 Published:2006-11-30
  • Contact: LUO Yi-Bo

摘要:

兰科是显花植物中的一个大类群,世界约有800属25 000种,全世界所有野生兰科植物均被列入《濒危野生动植物物种国际贸易公约》的保护范围,是植物保护中的“旗舰”类群。中国是野生兰科植物最重要的多样性中心之一,约有171属1 247种。作为中国的典型热带地区,海南岛具有丰富的野生兰科植物资源。该文系统地收集和整理了海南岛野生兰科植物资源信息,以海南岛19个行政县为基本分布区,构建海南岛野生兰科植物数据库,采用特有性简约分析(Parsimony analysis of endemicity)和互补分析(Complementarity analysis)两种方法,探讨海南岛野生兰科植物多样性保护的最低保护区组合和区域保护优先序问题。结果表明:海南岛约分布有野生兰科植物77属202种(30个中国特有种),其多样性保护的关键区域为南部和西南部地区;基于物种相似性,两个区域被建议作为优先保护区域:一个是以保亭、三亚和陵水为代表的区域,另一个区域以昌江和乐东为代表;基于互补性原理,最低保护区组合为10个分布区,按照其保护优先序依次排列为保亭、三亚、五指山、陵水、白沙、乐东、琼中、东方、昌江和琼山等地,其中陵水、保亭、琼中、乐东、三亚和五指山等6个分布区就包含了30个特有科在内。我们认为,基于海南岛野生兰科植物建立优先保护区域,利用有限的资源达到最优的保护,是一个较为合理、科学和高效的保护策略。

关键词: 特有性简约分析, 互补分析, 最低保护区组合, 优先地区, 生物多样性, 保护

Abstract:

Background and Aims Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and China is one of its most important centers of diversity, with 171 genera and about 1 247 species. Wild species of this family are considered as a key group for plant conservation. Because we cannot preserve all biota in all areas of distribution, conservation priorities must be set and a minimum number of distribution areas needed to preserve the greatest amount of biodiversity possible must be evaluated. Hainan Island is considered as a typical area in China with a high diversity of wild orchids. Previous studies on Hainan Island have focused on investigations of wild orchid resources, but little information is available on their conservation. Analyses of species diversity and endemism patterns provide vital information for conservation planning. Our goal was to determine priority areas with a diverse wild orchid flora and the minimum number of distribution units needed to protect all wild orchid species on Hainan Island.

Methods The 19 administrative counties of Hainan province were treated as the distribution units. Using data on the distribution of the species obtained from the literature and herbarium specimens, we constructed a presence/absence matrix of 202 wild orchids recorded on Hainan Island. Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify hotspots of total diversity and endemism at the distribution unit level, and complementarity analyses were applied to show how the target set of species can be conserved with a minimum number of distribution units.

Key Results The database consisted of 1 182 records in the 19 distribution units. Based on this distribution matrix, the analysis generated 424 equally parsimonious trees, from which a strict consensus cladogram was obtained. According to the floristic similarities among the 19 distribution units based on 202 species of wild orchids, two areas were suggested as priorities: one located in southern Hainan Island, represented by Baoting, Sanya, Lingshui and Qiongzhong, and another in the southwest, represented by Changjiang and Ledong. Bootstrap values were 79% and 69%, respectively. Similar results were obtained by parsimony analysis of endemicity. Units with the most floristic similarities of endemisms were Baoting, Lingshui, Ledong, Sanya, Qiongzhong and Changjiang, but the bootstrap values were low, less than 50%. Complementarity analysis showed that at least ten distribution units are required to protect all wild orchid species; listed in descending order of cumulative numbers, they are Baoting, Sanya, Wuzhishan, Lingshui, Baisha, Ledong, Qiongzhong, Dongfang, Changjiang and Qiongshan. Six are needed to protect 30 endemic species: Lingshui, Baoting, Qiongzhong, Ledong, Sanya and Wuzhishan. These six are included in the ten needed to preserve all wild orchid species. The main difference is the hierarchical arrangement of the units. These results indicated that, at least at distribution unit level, the units important to protect all wild orchid species are also important to preserve the endemic species.

Conclusions An assumption of both parsimony and complementarity analyses is complete knowledge of the distribution of each species in a region, but this is unlikely for wild orchids on Hainan Island. Another problem with our study is that we chose the administrative counties of Hainan Island as the distribution units rather than units based on biogeographic criteria. Despite these limitations, our study provided a baseline set of protected areas for the conservation of wild orchid diversity on Hainan Island that can be supplemented to meet other conservation and socio-economic needs and objectives.

Key words: Parsimony analysis of endemicity, Complementarity analysis, Minimum number of distribution units, Priority areas, Biodiversity, Conservation