植物生态学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (6): 739-745.

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

菌根真菌在生态系统中的作用

梁宇,郭良栋,马克平   

  • 发布日期:2002-06-10
  • 通讯作者: 梁 宇

The Role of Mycorrhizal Fungi In Ecosystems

LIANG Yu, GUO Liang-Dong and MA Ke-Ping   

  • Published:2002-06-10
  • Contact: LIANG Yu

摘要: 菌根是一种植物营养根与土壤真菌形成的共生体,在自然界中分布广泛。本文着重从以下几个方面介绍相关的研究进展:1) 菌根真菌作为生态系统的重要组成部分,具有不可忽视的生物量,并成为连接绿色植物和食真菌者食物链的重要一环;2) 菌根真菌通过参与凋落物的酶降解过程影响有机物的循环,通过促进生物固氮、加速土壤磷的风化、提高土壤溶液离子的有效性以及直接吸收等过程影响氮、磷、钾、钙、镁等元素的无机循环;3) 菌根真菌与土壤微生物间存在有益的或拮抗的相互作用,并可以直接或间接地影响根际生物区系的组成和数量;菌根真菌通过对宿主植物的有益作用而影响植物的种间竞争,通过菌根网络而形成的种团可以在同种或不同种植物间实现资源的重新分配和共享;由于对种间关系的作用和对食物链的影响,菌根真菌对群落的物种构成和多样性的维持具有重要的作用;菌根真菌是群落演替过程的指示者,也是这一过程的参与者和推动者,并且菌根真菌的存在也有利于提高土壤团聚体的稳定性及促进灰壤的形成;4) 菌根真菌的种类和数量可以指示生态系统中自然的或人类活动引起的变化,并可以在生态系统的保护、恢复或重建过程中发挥重要作用。文章的最后还介绍了最新的研究热点和发展趋势。

Abstract: Mycorrhiza is defined as a mutualistic symbiosis between plants and fungi localized in roots or root_like structures in which energy moves primarily from plants to fungi and inorganic resources move from fungi to plants. Since most land plants in the world belong to families that are commonly mycorrhizal, mycorrhizal fungi may play important roles in nature. Findings of many researches, especially those of recent studies, are helpful in understanding the role of mycorrhizal fungi in the structure and functioning of ecosystems. In this paper, the following aspects of mycorrhizal fungi research were introduced: 1) As an important part of ecosystems, mycorrhizal fungi consume a great deal of photosynthate and are parts of food chains between autotrophic plants and fungivores; 2) Mycorrhizal fungi have a great effect on the biogeochemical cycling through taking part in the enzymatic decomposition of litter, promoting the absorption of inorganic ions or compounds, accelerating the weathering of miners, and contributing to the process of biological nitrogen fixation; 3) Mycorrhizal fungi affect the structure and functioning of the ecosystems in different ways. They have an interaction with microbes in the soil and thus may have an influence on the composition of soil microbes. They influence the inter-or intra-specific interactions of plants through having beneficial effects on host plants or connecting different plants with mycorrhizal networks. Mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the maintenance of biodiversity and stability of plant communities, and they can also act as an indicator, participator and promoter of succession of plant communities; 4) The magnitude and species composition of mycorrhizal fungi may indicate the changes of an ecosystem, and mycorrhizal fungi can also be used in the conservation of natural ecosystems or restoration of damaged or desert ecosystems. The focuses of recent mycorrhizal fungi researches and a brief perspective was also discussed in this paper.