植物生态学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (2): 111-127.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0271

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国植被分类系统修订方案

郭柯1,2,*(),方精云1,3,王国宏1,唐志尧3,谢宗强1,2,沈泽昊3,王仁卿4,强胜5,梁存柱6,达良俊7,于丹8   

  1. 1中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    2中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049
    3Institute of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    4山东大学生命科学学院, 济南 250100
    5南京农业大学生命科学学院, 南京 210095
    6内蒙古大学生态与环境学院, 呼和浩特 010021
    7华东师范大学生态与环境科学学院, 上海 200241
    8武汉大学生命科学学院, 武汉 430072
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-15 接受日期:2019-12-16 出版日期:2020-02-20 发布日期:2020-04-08
  • 通讯作者: 郭柯
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY210200);国家科技基础资源调查专项(2019FY202300);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA19050402)

A revised scheme of vegetation classification system of China

GUO Ke1,2,*(),FANG Jing-Yun1,3,WANG Guo-Hong1,TANG Zhi-Yao3,XIE Zong-Qiang1,2,SHEN Ze-Hao3,WANG Ren-Qing4,QIANG Sheng5,LIANG Cun-Zhu6,DA Liang-Jun7,YU Dan8   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3Institute of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    4School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
    5School of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
    6School of Ecology and Environment, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, China
    7School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    8College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
  • Received:2019-10-15 Accepted:2019-12-16 Online:2020-02-20 Published:2020-04-08
  • Contact: Ke GUO
  • Supported by:
    Special Foundation for National Science and Technology Basic Research Program of China(2015FY210200);Special Foundation for National Science and Technology Basic Resources Investigation of China(2019FY202300);“Strategic Priority Research Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA19050402)

摘要:

为了推动《中国植被志》研编工作, 该文回顾了中国植被分类系统的发展过程和主要阶段性成果, 提出了作为《中国植被志》研编技术框架组成部分的中国植被分类系统修订方案, 对各植被型组及各植被型进行了简单定义和描述, 并针对中国植被分类系统若干问题, 特别就中国植被分类系统总体框架、混交林的界定以及土壤在植被分类中的重要性等问题进行了讨论。1960年侯学煜在《中国的植被》中首次提出了中国植被分类的原则和系统, 1980年出版的《中国植被》制定了分类等级和划分依据等更加完善的系统, 之后《中国植被及其地理格局——中华人民共和国1:1 000 000植被图说明书》和《中国植物区系与植被地理》以及很多省区的植被专著对该系统进行过修订。2017年宋永昌在《植被生态学》中提出了一个分类等级单位调整的方案。本次提出的中国植被分类系统修订方案基本沿用《中国植被》的植被分类原则、分类单位及系统, 采用“植物群落学-生态学”分类原则, 主要以植物群落特征及其与环境的关系作为分类依据, 包含三级主要分类单位, 即植被型(高级单位)、群系(中级单位)和群丛(低级单位); 在三个主要分类单位之上分别增加辅助单位植被型组、群系组和群丛组, 在植被型和群系之下主要根据群落的生态差异和实际需要可再增加植被亚型或亚群系。修订方案包含了森林、灌丛、草本植被(草地)、荒漠、高山冻原与稀疏植被、沼泽与水生植被(湿地)、农业植被、城市植被和无植被地段9个植被型组, 划分为48个植被型(含30个自然植被型、12个农业植被型、5个城市植被型和无植被地段)。自然植被中有23个植被型进一步划分出了81个植被亚型。

关键词: 植被分类, 植被型, 群系, 群丛, 群落外貌, 群落生态特征, “植物群落学-生态学”分类原则

Abstract: The principles and scheme of vegetation classification system of China (China-VCS) were first proposed by Hou in China’s Vegetation in 1960. An improved hierarchy framework and criteria of China-VCS were published in Vegetation of China in 1980. China-VCS was revised in Vegetation of China and Its Geographic Pattern — Illustration of the Vegetation Map of the People’s Republic of China (1:1 000 000) in 2007 and in Flora and Vegetation Geography of China in 2014. Song proposed a new scheme in the text book Vegetation Ecology in 2017. To facilitate Chinese vegetation study and the compilation of the book series on the vegetation of China (Vegegraphy of China), this paper provides a revised scheme of China-VCS. The scheme adopts the principles, units and hierarchy structure in the Vegetation of China that was considered as a milestone in the development of Chinese vegetation science. Based on the phytocoenological-ecological principles, plant community features and its ecological conditions are considered as the key criteria for vegetation classification. There are three levels including eight units in the hierarchy framework of China-VCS: upper level (Vegetation Formation Group, Vegetation Formation, and Vegetation Subformation), middle level (Alliance Group, Alliance, Suballiance), and lower level (Association Group, Association). Nine Vegetation Formation Groups are defined as Forest, Shrubland, Herbaceous Vegetation (Grassland), Desert, Alpine Tundra and Sparse Vegetation, Swamp and Aquatic Vegetation (Wetlands), Agricultural Vegetation, Urban Vegetation, and Non-vegetated Area. Forty-eight Vegetation Formations (30 for natural and semi-natural vegetation, 12 for agricultural vegetation, 5 for urban vegetation, and one for Non-vegetated Area) are defined, including 81 Vegetation Subformations from 23 natural and semi-natural vegetation formations. These vegetation formation groups and 30 natural and semi-natural vegetation formations were described briefly. Some issues on China-VCS, especially on the framework, criterion identifying mixed-forest, and the role of soil in vegetation classification, are discussed.

Key words: vegetation classification, Vegetation Formation, Alliance, Association, community physiognomy, community ecological feature, the phytocoenological-ecological principles